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Entrepreneurial Income and Wellbeing: Women’s Informal Entrepreneurship in a Developing Context

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School of Business, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China
2
Yunus Social Business Centre, School of Business, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China
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Higher Education Department, Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
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LaPenta School of Business, Iona College, New York, NY 108012, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: João Carlos Correia Leitão and Carlos Rodríguez Monroy
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10262; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810262
Received: 13 July 2021 / Revised: 3 September 2021 / Accepted: 9 September 2021 / Published: 14 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability)
This study examines the impact of women’s entrepreneurial income on wellbeing. Women entrepreneurs (N = 504) from district Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan participated in the study. ANOVAs and multiple regressions were used to analyze the impact of predictors on the dependent variables (i.e., per capita income, education, health, entertainment, social, household, and other miscellaneous expenditures, investment, savings, and charity). The findings indicated that women’s informal entrepreneurship has a significant role in family, economic, and societal wellbeing. The results contribute to the understanding of women’s entrepreneurial income on individual and family wellbeing. Women’s informal entrepreneurship plays an important role, particularly in the developing world, consistent with the multiplier effect of women entrepreneurs’’ wellbeing. Measures were suggested to empower such women informal, home-based entrepreneurs in view of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. View Full-Text
Keywords: entrepreneurship; women; informal business; income; wellbeing; family entrepreneurship; women; informal business; income; wellbeing; family
MDPI and ACS Style

Muhammad, S.; Kong, X.; Saqib, S.E.; Beutell, N.J. Entrepreneurial Income and Wellbeing: Women’s Informal Entrepreneurship in a Developing Context. Sustainability 2021, 13, 10262. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810262

AMA Style

Muhammad S, Kong X, Saqib SE, Beutell NJ. Entrepreneurial Income and Wellbeing: Women’s Informal Entrepreneurship in a Developing Context. Sustainability. 2021; 13(18):10262. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810262

Chicago/Turabian Style

Muhammad, Said, Ximei Kong, Shahab E. Saqib, and Nicholas J. Beutell 2021. "Entrepreneurial Income and Wellbeing: Women’s Informal Entrepreneurship in a Developing Context" Sustainability 13, no. 18: 10262. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810262

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