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Article

Coagulation-Flocculation of Aquaculture Wastewater Using Green Coagulant from Garcinia kola Seeds: Parametric Studies, Kinetic Modelling and Cost Analysis

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Department of Chemical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P. M. B. 5025, Awka 420218, Nigeria
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Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Ilorin, P. M. B. 1515, Ilorin 240103, Nigeria
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Department of Agriculture, UoI Kostakii Campus, University of Ioannina, 47040 Arta, Greece
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: P. Senthil Kumar, Dai-Viet N. Vo, N. Selvaraju and S. Ramalingam
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 9177; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169177
Received: 1 July 2021 / Revised: 7 August 2021 / Accepted: 12 August 2021 / Published: 16 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Materials for Environmental Applications)
To achieve sustainability, it is necessary to use proper treatment methods to reduce the pollutant loads of receiving waters. This study investigates the coagulative reduction of turbidity, COD, BOD and colour from aquaculture wastewater (AW) using a novel Garcinia kola seeds coagulant (GKC). This coagulant was obtained from extraction of Garcinia kola seeds and analysed for its spectral and morphological characteristics through FTIR and SEM. The kinetics of coagulation-flocculation were also investigated in terms of total dissolved and suspended solids (TDSP). The seeds had 11.27% protein and 68.33% carbohydrate, showing usability in adsorption/charges neutralisation as a coagulant to reduce particles. Maximal turbidity reduction = 81.93%, COD = 75.03%, BOD = 72.84% and colour = 56.69% at 0.3 g GKC/L, pH 2, 60 min and 303 K were achieved. Von Smoluchowski’s second-order peri-kinetics theory was used to fit the results, giving R2 > 0.9. At a coagulation order (α) of 2, the reaction rate (KC) and half-life (τS1/2) were 0.0003 L/g·min and 25.3 min at the optimal conditions. The sorption data better fit the Lagergren compared to the Ho adsorption model. Furthermore, the net cost of using GKC to handle 1 L of AW (including electricity and material costs) was calculated to be 1.57 EUR, and the costs of 0.3 g/L GKC preparation and energy were 0.27 and 1.30 EUR, respectively. In summary, these seeds can be used to pre-treat AW. View Full-Text
Keywords: Garcinia kola; aquaculture; coagulation; water treatment; adsorption; turbidity Garcinia kola; aquaculture; coagulation; water treatment; adsorption; turbidity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Igwegbe, C.A.; Ighalo, J.O.; Onukwuli, O.D.; Obiora-Okafo, I.A.; Anastopoulos, I. Coagulation-Flocculation of Aquaculture Wastewater Using Green Coagulant from Garcinia kola Seeds: Parametric Studies, Kinetic Modelling and Cost Analysis. Sustainability 2021, 13, 9177. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169177

AMA Style

Igwegbe CA, Ighalo JO, Onukwuli OD, Obiora-Okafo IA, Anastopoulos I. Coagulation-Flocculation of Aquaculture Wastewater Using Green Coagulant from Garcinia kola Seeds: Parametric Studies, Kinetic Modelling and Cost Analysis. Sustainability. 2021; 13(16):9177. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169177

Chicago/Turabian Style

Igwegbe, Chinenye A., Joshua O. Ighalo, Okechukwu D. Onukwuli, Ifeoma A. Obiora-Okafo, and Ioannis Anastopoulos. 2021. "Coagulation-Flocculation of Aquaculture Wastewater Using Green Coagulant from Garcinia kola Seeds: Parametric Studies, Kinetic Modelling and Cost Analysis" Sustainability 13, no. 16: 9177. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169177

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