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Article

The Effects of Tunnel Technology on Crop Productivity and Livelihood of Smallholder Farmers in Nepal

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Department of Marketing, Griffith University, 226 Grey Street, Brisbane, QLD 4101, Australia
2
Agriculture Knowledge Center, Province Government, Lalitpur 44700, Bagmati Province, Nepal
3
Centre for Sustainable Agricultural Systems, University of Southern Queensland, West Street, Toowoomba, QLD 4350, Australia
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Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Tennessee State University, John A Merritt Blvd, Nashville, TN 37209, USA
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Department of Agricultural Extension, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS), Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rosa Maria Fanelli
Sustainability 2021, 13(14), 7935; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13147935
Received: 20 June 2021 / Revised: 13 July 2021 / Accepted: 14 July 2021 / Published: 16 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Economics and Sustainable Food Consumption)
Technologies-based production practices are critical for agricultural growth and sustainable development in low-income countries like Nepal. In the last few years, tunnel house has been increasingly promoted as tools to enhance smallholder farmers’ livelihood and tackle climate adversaries. However, little is known about what factor determines its adoption and whether it helps smallholders adapt to climate change and experience better livelihood. We address these gaps using the cross-sectional survey data collected from 62 adopters and 92 non-adopters in three municipalities of Bagmati Province. We employed descriptive analysis and probit model and found out that age, farm size, and ethnicity strongly influence the technology adoption amongst smallholder farmers. Additionally, treatment model and ordinary least square (OLS) regression were utilized to examine tunnel technology’s effect. Our study shows that tunnel significantly increases production by 32 tons/year/hectare and protects crops from climate change effects such as heavy rainfall and temperature change. Likewise, tunnel technology increases the net crop income by $1700/year/hectare. However, the economic benefit is not substantial compared to technology’s adoption cost as adopters incur enormous costs of $12,000/year/hectare on equipment, labor and resources. These results suggest policymakers should concentrate on reducing the technology’s cost, which could be achieved through subsidies, financial support, or price control mechanisms. Ensuring technology’s affordability can contribute to smallholder farmers’ sustainable livelihood in Nepal and countries with similar contexts. View Full-Text
Keywords: livelihood; smallholder farmers; tunnel technology; sustainable development; agricultural growth livelihood; smallholder farmers; tunnel technology; sustainable development; agricultural growth
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MDPI and ACS Style

KC, D.; Jamarkattel, D.; Maraseni, T.; Nandwani, D.; Karki, P. The Effects of Tunnel Technology on Crop Productivity and Livelihood of Smallholder Farmers in Nepal. Sustainability 2021, 13, 7935. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13147935

AMA Style

KC D, Jamarkattel D, Maraseni T, Nandwani D, Karki P. The Effects of Tunnel Technology on Crop Productivity and Livelihood of Smallholder Farmers in Nepal. Sustainability. 2021; 13(14):7935. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13147935

Chicago/Turabian Style

KC, Diwakar, Dinesh Jamarkattel, Tek Maraseni, Dilip Nandwani, and Pratibha Karki. 2021. "The Effects of Tunnel Technology on Crop Productivity and Livelihood of Smallholder Farmers in Nepal" Sustainability 13, no. 14: 7935. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13147935

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