Approaches to Social Innovation in Positive Energy Districts (PEDs)—A Comparison of Norwegian Projects
2. Background: PED Concept and Social Innovation
2.1. PED Definitions
2.2. SET Plan Approach
2.3. Social Innovation Approaches
3.1. Research Approach
3.2. Context of Developing PEDs in Norway
4.1. Case Analysis
Presentation of the Demo Sites for PED Implementation in Norway
4.2. Approaches towards Social Innovation
4.2.1. Citizen Involvement
4.2.2. Stakeholder Interaction
4.2.3. Capacity Building, Education and Training
- Who is responsible for social innovation activities over the lifetime of the PED project?
- How can the responsible persons and organizations for citizen and stakeholder involvement ensure they have the capacity (abilities, knowledge, skills) to facilitate social innovation activities within PED development and to involve, educate and train on the new concept of PED and its practical implications?
- How could the respective stakeholders, including citizens, be appropriately involved in the PED development to enable social innovation processes?
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|FME||Research Centres for Environmentally Friendly Energy [Forskningssenter for Miljøvennlig Energi]|
|GIS||Geographic Information System|
|H2020||Horizon 2020—the eighth European framework programme for Research and Innovation|
|JPI UE||Joint Programming Initiative Urban Europe|
|NTNU||Norwegian University of Science and Technology|
|PEB||Positive Energy Block|
|PED||Positive Energy District|
|RCN||Research Council of Norway|
|SET||Strategic Energy Transition|
|SPEN||Sustainable Positive Energy Neighbourhood|
|ZEN||Zero Emission Neighbourhood|
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|A. Program and Call Information|
|Timeframe||8 years (2017–2024)||5 years (2018–2023)||4.5 years (2020–2024)|
|Project Context||Follower project of FME ZEB on Zero Emission Buildings||Project based on NTNU Smart Cities and Communities approaches and city ambitions||Internationalization of FME ZEN to participate in international fora to exchange knowledge and experience|
|Main Funding Agency||Research Council of Norway||European Commission-Horizon 2020||European Commission-Horizon 2020|
|Project Type||Research Centre||Innovation Action||Innovation Action|
|Program||FME—Research Centre for Environmentally Friendly Energy||H2020-EU 126.96.36.199. - Foster European Smart cities and Communities||H2020-EU 188.8.131.52. - Technologies enabling energy-efficient systems and energy-efficient buildings with low environmental impact|
|Topic of Call||N/A||EU H2020-LC-SC3-1-2018-2019-2020: Smart Cities and Communities||EU H2020-LC-EEB-03-2019: New developments in plus-energy houses|
|Budget||48 million Euro||35 million Euro||6.9 million Euro|
|B. Management and Partners|
|Coordinator||NTNU: research institute; with SINTEF as main research partner||NTNU: research institute; cities for city demo site coordination||NTNU: research institute with SINTEF as part of consortium|
|Partners||32 Norwegian partners||11 Norwegian and 21 international partners||3 Norwegian and 10 international partners|
|Background of Partners||Partners from whole value chain within construction sector, plus-energy sector and municipalities, research||Research, public sector, energy, digital technology, engagement and outreach, planning, real estate, mobility||Property developers, urban design consultancies, energy forecasting and optimization solutions, real estate/facility management, research|
|Role of Partners||Active; but partners are not obligated to fulfil activities; Steering Committee led by partners||Active; partners are jointly working on specific tasks for project objectives||Active; partners are jointly working on specific tasks for project objectives|
|C. Project Goals and Approach|
|Project Goal||Framework and methodology for Zero Emission Neighbourhoods||Design, deployment, testing, replication of PEBs/PEDs and PEB-enabling innovations||Replication and upscaling of SPENS; 10% market uptake of plus energy houses by 2030|
|Focus||Emission reduction in the built environment, energy systems and energy flexibility, introduction of new technology solutions to marked||Urban transitions, emission reduction, energy transition, local energy systems, Open Innovation, co-creation, sustainable business models, regulatory mechanisms||Development of new designs, tools, methods, and processes which will enable large deployment of sustainable plus energy buildings and neighborhoods|
|Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions||Assessed in all life-cycle phases||Assessed in operational phase of the demo sites||Total GHG is part of its environmental performance indicators in the overall SPEN evaluation framework|
|Demo Sites||9 demo sites in 8 Norwegian Cities||2 PEB demo sites in Trondheim, Norway; 6 international demo sites||1 demo site in Oslo, Norway and 3 international demo sites|
|Coordinator of Demo Sites||(Mainly) public steered demo sites||Public and private steered demo sites||Private steered demo site|
|Demo Site||Project||Type of Area before PED Development||Area Size (m2)||Project Owner||Planned Construction|
|Ydalir, Elverum||ZEN||Brownfield||430,000||Public||Residential area with a school and kindergarten|
|Furuset, Oslo||ZEN||Mixed-use neighborhood with local center||870,000||Public||Retrofitting/upgrading and new construction: 1700–2300 dwellings and 2000–3400 workplaces (up to 160,000 m2)|
|Zero Village Bergen (ZVB), Bergen||ZEN||Greenfield||378,000||Private||Residential area with 720 dwellings (92,000 m2), a kindergarten and additional service functions|
|NTNU Campus, Trondheim||ZEN||University Campus||339,031||Public||Retrofitting and new construction (ca. 136,000 m2)|
|Mixed use area, mainly commercial||275,000||Private (+CxC), Public (ZEN)||Multifunctional local center with a mobility hub, residential area, offices, warehouses; incl. retrofitting and new construction|
|Brattøra, Trondheim||+CxC||Former harbor, mainly commercial and offices||450,000||Private (for site)/ Public (for neighborhood level)||Powerhouse office building completed, further (re) development upcoming, mobility hub with future e-ferries|
|Evenstad Campus||ZEN||University Campus||61,000||Public||Optimization of energy system|
|New City-New Airport, Bodø||ZEN||Former airport||3,400,000||Public||Multifunctional city quarter with residential and business areas; 2800 dwellings in first construction stage|
|Fornebu, Bærum||ZEN||Former airport||3,400,000||Public||Multifunctional city quarter, ca. 265,000 m2 existing building stock, ca. 3700 new dwellings|
|Mære, Steinkjer||ZEN||Agricultural school||18,000 (Gross building area)||Public||Optimization of energy system and control|
|Oen, Oslo||syn.ikia||Residential building||12,750 (Gross building area)||Private||New residential building with 146 housing units with sharing of community spaces, RES, local energy storage, peak shaving, flexibility and self-consumption|
|Citizen Involvement||Focus on technical innovation, bottom-up approach for social innovation in demo sites, citizen participation facilitated by project partners||Focus on technical and social innovation, citizen participation facilitated through the project||Focus on demonstrating innovations and savings going from a building level to a neighborhood scale to encourage a new level of citizens’ participation and awareness via neighborhood scale user engagement systems, user journey assessments and surveys|
|Stakeholder Interaction||Open innovation driven by consortium partners and local stakeholders related to each demo site. Prominent role of public sector as main demo site project owner (8 of 9 demo sites are public owned)||Open innovation activities are driven by multiple stakeholders (public, research, private incl. SMEs, people)||Open innovation driven by consortium partners, local stakeholders related to each demo site and the development of a wider online stakeholder community to engage partners in different parts of the value chain|
|Capacity Building, Education and Learning||Professional capacity building||Community capacity building, professional capacity building through intra-project exchanges, education through universities||Capacity building is directed towards, not just end users, but actors in the combined value chain, hence extending to a diverse audience of experts, professionals and policy makers, such as investors, developers, municipalities, grid operators and utilities, and building owners|
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Baer, D.; Loewen, B.; Cheng, C.; Thomsen, J.; Wyckmans, A.; Temeljotov-Salaj, A.; Ahlers, D. Approaches to Social Innovation in Positive Energy Districts (PEDs)—A Comparison of Norwegian Projects. Sustainability 2021, 13, 7362. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137362
Baer D, Loewen B, Cheng C, Thomsen J, Wyckmans A, Temeljotov-Salaj A, Ahlers D. Approaches to Social Innovation in Positive Energy Districts (PEDs)—A Comparison of Norwegian Projects. Sustainability. 2021; 13(13):7362. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137362Chicago/Turabian Style
Baer, Daniela, Bradley Loewen, Caroline Cheng, Judith Thomsen, Annemie Wyckmans, Alenka Temeljotov-Salaj, and Dirk Ahlers. 2021. "Approaches to Social Innovation in Positive Energy Districts (PEDs)—A Comparison of Norwegian Projects" Sustainability 13, no. 13: 7362. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137362