Next Article in Journal
Energy Cost Performance of Thermal Power Industry in China Considering Regional Heterogeneity: A Meta-Frontier Cost Malmquist Productivity Decomposition Approach
Previous Article in Journal
(Not) Doing the Right Things for the Wrong Reasons: An Investigation of Consumer Attitudes, Perceptions, and Willingness to Pay for Bio-Based Plastics
Article

Treatment Effect of Exercise Intervention for Female College Students with Depression: Analysis of Electroencephalogram Microstates and Power Spectrum

1
School of Sports, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119, China
2
Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: David Jiménez-Pavón and Cristina Cadenas-Sánchez
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6822; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126822
Received: 20 April 2021 / Revised: 9 June 2021 / Accepted: 11 June 2021 / Published: 16 June 2021
This paper aims to assess the effect of exercise intervention on the improvement of college students with depression and to explore the change characteristics of microstates and the power spectrum in their resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG). Forty female college students with moderate depression were screened according to the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Depression Self-Rating Scale (SDS) scores, and half of them received an exercise intervention for 18 weeks. The study utilized an EEG to define the resting-state networks, and the scores of all the participants were tracked during the intervention. Compared with those in the depression group, the power spectrum values in the θ and α bands were significantly decreased (p < 0.05), and the duration of microstate C increased significantly (p < 0.05), while the frequency of microstate B decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the exercise intervention group. The transition probabilities showed that the exercise intervention group had a higher probability from B to D than those in the depression group (p < 0.01). In addition, the power of the δ and α bands were negatively correlated with the occurrence of microstate C (r = −0.842, p < 0.05 and r = −0.885, p < 0.01, respectively), and the power of the β band was positively correlated with the duration of microstate C (r = 0.900, p < 0.01) after exercise intervention. Our results suggest that the decreased duration of microstate C and the increased α power in depressed students are associated with reduced cognitive ability, emotional stability, and brain activity. Depression symptoms were notably improved after exercise intervention, thus providing a more scientific index for the research, rehabilitation mechanisms, and treatment of depression. View Full-Text
Keywords: electroencephalogram; sports; depression; microstates; power spectrum; college students; correlation electroencephalogram; sports; depression; microstates; power spectrum; college students; correlation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Liang, A.; Zhao, S.; Song, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Niu, X.; Xiao, T.; Chi, A. Treatment Effect of Exercise Intervention for Female College Students with Depression: Analysis of Electroencephalogram Microstates and Power Spectrum. Sustainability 2021, 13, 6822. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126822

AMA Style

Liang A, Zhao S, Song J, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Niu X, Xiao T, Chi A. Treatment Effect of Exercise Intervention for Female College Students with Depression: Analysis of Electroencephalogram Microstates and Power Spectrum. Sustainability. 2021; 13(12):6822. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126822

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liang, Andi, Shanguang Zhao, Jing Song, Yan Zhang, Yue Zhang, Xiaodan Niu, Tao Xiao, and Aiping Chi. 2021. "Treatment Effect of Exercise Intervention for Female College Students with Depression: Analysis of Electroencephalogram Microstates and Power Spectrum" Sustainability 13, no. 12: 6822. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126822

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop