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Open AccessArticle

Pursuing Sustainable Happiness through Participation in Exercise for South Korean Students: Structural Relationships among Exercise, Mental Health Factors, School Satisfaction, and Happiness

by 1 and 2,*
1
Department of Physical Education, BaeMyeong High School, Seoul 05598, Korea
2
College of Physical Education, KyungHee University, Gyeonggi-do 10315, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3797; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093797
Received: 27 March 2020 / Revised: 5 May 2020 / Accepted: 6 May 2020 / Published: 7 May 2020
The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility that exercise participation can be an important factor in the pursuit of sustainable happiness. For this purpose, this study focused on the causal relationships among the frequency of exercise, self-esteem, stress, depression, school satisfaction and degree of happiness in elementary, junior high and high school students (n = 11,132) in South Korea. The data used for this study were collected in 2016 by the National Youth Policy Institute (NYPI) for the “UN convention on the rights of the child.” The results were as follows; firstly, the exercise frequency had a significant causal relationship with self-esteem, stress, school satisfaction and happiness but not with depression. However, it was found that exercise frequency had an indirect effect on depression through stress. In detail, exercise frequency could positively reduce stress, and less stress affects depression. Secondly, there were significant direct or indirect effects on self-esteem, stress, depression, degree of happiness and school satisfaction. Lastly, only depression did not affect school satisfaction and happiness. View Full-Text
Keywords: exercise frequency; self-esteem; stress; depression; school satisfaction; happiness exercise frequency; self-esteem; stress; depression; school satisfaction; happiness
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cheon, H.; Lim, S. Pursuing Sustainable Happiness through Participation in Exercise for South Korean Students: Structural Relationships among Exercise, Mental Health Factors, School Satisfaction, and Happiness. Sustainability 2020, 12, 3797.

AMA Style

Cheon H, Lim S. Pursuing Sustainable Happiness through Participation in Exercise for South Korean Students: Structural Relationships among Exercise, Mental Health Factors, School Satisfaction, and Happiness. Sustainability. 2020; 12(9):3797.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cheon, HangUk; Lim, Seijun. 2020. "Pursuing Sustainable Happiness through Participation in Exercise for South Korean Students: Structural Relationships among Exercise, Mental Health Factors, School Satisfaction, and Happiness" Sustainability 12, no. 9: 3797.

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