A supportive upward voice environment is critical in nuclear power plants in order to provide energy in a sustainable manner. In high–reliability organizations, front–line employees’ suggestions and concerns enable the early identification of potential problems that might have catastrophic consequences (e.g., a nuclear accident). Despite this, previous research has mostly focused on person–centered antecedents of upward voice and, to a lesser extent, the influence of the supervisor–subordinate relationship, while neglecting the importance of the organizational context. This study responds to the aforementioned research lacuna. It examined the relationship between participative decision making and upward voice, and the mediating role of trust in leadership in this relationship. Moreover, it further extends previous research by examining the role of safety climate, which is expected to moderate both the direct and the indirect effect of participative decision making on upward voice. The sample was composed of 495 workers from two nuclear power plants from the same organization. Findings supported the hypothesized moderated mediation model: the indirect effect of participative decision making (PDM) on upward voice via trust in leadership was contingent upon the level of the safety climate. The indirect effect became weaker as the safety climate increased. These findings support the relevance of the organizational context.
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