Next Article in Journal
Corporate Governance-Based Strategic Approach to Sustainability in Energy Industry of Emerging Economies with a Novel Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Hybrid Decision Making Model
Previous Article in Journal
Increasing Students’ Physical Activity in Function of Social Sustainability: Recommendations from a Social Marketing Perspective
Article

What Is the Threshold Carbonization Temperature for Sustainable Preservation of the Good Nitrogen Supply Ability of Chicken Manure?

1
United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193, Japan
2
Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute, Tower Hill Freetown/Rokupr Agricultural Research Center, Rokupr 1313, Sierra Leone
3
Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193, Japan
4
Laboratory of Field Science, Faculty of Applied Biological Science, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(8), 3306; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083306
Received: 23 March 2020 / Revised: 7 April 2020 / Accepted: 14 April 2020 / Published: 18 April 2020
Chicken manure (CM) carbonization is an efficient waste control method that converts manure into an agriculturally useful amendment. However, the recommended temperature range of 300–500 °C has led to confounding results on the maintenance of the nitrogen (N) supply ability of CM after carbonization, and thus requires further investigation. The objective of this study was to identify an upper limit (threshold) temperature to guide the carbonization of CM in order to ensure that the good N supply ability of the manure after carbonization is preserved. CM was carbonized at 350, 375, 400, 425, 450, and 475 °C. Afterwards, chemical properties, surface functional groups, N speciation, N supply ability, and their relationships were investigated. The results indicated that the N supply ability of CM carbonized at 350–375 °C was comparable to the N supply ability of CM, which is possibly due to the minute alteration of the chemical properties, surface functionality, and N speciation that occurred in CM at these temperatures. At ≥400 °C, the N supply ability of CM was significantly reduced due to the increasing alterations of the chemical makeup as heating temperature increased. For sustainable maintenance of the good N supply ability of CM after carbonization, the manure should not be carbonized above 375 °C. View Full-Text
Keywords: chicken manure; carbonization; threshold temperature; N supply ability; chemical composition; surface functionality; N speciation chicken manure; carbonization; threshold temperature; N supply ability; chemical composition; surface functionality; N speciation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Daramy, M.A.; Kawada, R.; Oba, S. What Is the Threshold Carbonization Temperature for Sustainable Preservation of the Good Nitrogen Supply Ability of Chicken Manure? Sustainability 2020, 12, 3306. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083306

AMA Style

Daramy MA, Kawada R, Oba S. What Is the Threshold Carbonization Temperature for Sustainable Preservation of the Good Nitrogen Supply Ability of Chicken Manure? Sustainability. 2020; 12(8):3306. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083306

Chicago/Turabian Style

Daramy, Moses A., Ryoka Kawada, and Shinya Oba. 2020. "What Is the Threshold Carbonization Temperature for Sustainable Preservation of the Good Nitrogen Supply Ability of Chicken Manure?" Sustainability 12, no. 8: 3306. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083306

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop