2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Review of National Bioeconomy Strategies and Related Indicators
2.2. Review of Bioeconomy Indicator Projects
2.3. Assignment of Bioeconomy Indicators to the Related SDGs, their Targets, and Indicators and Screening of the National Bioeconomy Strategies for SDG-related Wording
2.4. Comparison with Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management (SFM)
3.1. The Bioeconomy and its Derived Relationship with the SDGs
3.1.1. Assignment Peculiarities
- Population growth (indicator for Italy)
- Population 15–65 years (indicator for Italy)
- Types of biotechnology used by firms (indicator for South Africa)
- Number of technology-transfer transactions (indicator for South Africa)
- Sustainability threshold levels for Bioeconomy Technologies (indicator for the Biomonitor Project)
- “Pharmaceutical industry productivity and number of regulatory approvals for health products”, assigned to SDG target 3.3;
- Various innovation indicators, assigned to SDG target 9.5;
- Indicators on climate change mitigation and adaptation such as carbon emissions, carbon sequestration, climate footprint, etc., assigned to SDG target 13.2.
3.1.2. Frequency of Assignment
3.1.3. Different Relevance of the SDGs for National Bioeconomies
3.2. Distribution of Forest-related and other Bioeconomy Indicators
4.1. Is Progress towards Bioeconomy Strategy Objectives Measured by Using Indicators?
4.2. Contain the Studied National Bioeconomy Strategies Developed and Adopted after 2015 References to the SDGs, their Targets and Indicators?
4.3. As the Forest Sector is One of the Key Sectors for the Development of a Bioeconomy, do the National Bioeconomy Indicators Resemble the Respective Intergovernmental Regional or International Indicators for SFM?
5.1. Which SDGs Might Be Included in the Future Bioeconomy Discussion?
5.2. What might be Improved in Sets of National Bioeconomy Indicators to Fit them Better with Bioeconomy-related SDGs, Targets, and Indicators?
- Each objective in the bioeconomy strategy should have at least one indicator for quantification, progress monitoring, and assessment;
- Comprehensive approaches for progress reporting on the bioeconomy should consider all relevant SDG issues;
- If an SDG-related goal is addressed in the bioeconomy strategy, the pool of corresponding SDG indicators should be considered;
- Already existing indicators from SDGs or from indicator sets for sustainable forest management should be integrated to reduce monitoring and reporting burdens;
- National monitoring systems and datasets should be harmonized and streamlined with global initiatives and international data requirements for SDGs and forest monitoring (e.g., UNECE, FAO, EUROSTAT, EC JRC, FOREST EUROPE) to allow comparability. Measure once, store in intersectoral databases and use manifold;
Conflicts of Interest
|ASEAN||Association of South-East Asian Nations|
|BOKU||University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna|
|EC JRC||Joint Research Centre of the European Commission|
|EEA||European Environment Agency|
|EFI||European Forest Institute|
|EUROSTAT||Statistical Office of the European Commission|
|FAO||Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations|
|FOREST EUROPE||The brand name of the Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe|
|FRA||FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment|
|GDP||Gross Domestic Product|
|GERD||Gross Expenditure on Research and Development|
|GMO||Genetically Modified Organism|
|GVA||Gross Value Added|
|IPR||Intellectual Property Rights|
|ITTO||The International Tropical Timber Organization|
|IUFRO||International Union of Forest Research Organizations|
|LFCC||Low Forest Cover Countries|
|Luke||Natural Resources Institute Finland|
|R&D||Research and Development|
|SDG||Sustainable Development Goal of the United Nations|
|SFM||Sustainable Forest Management|
|UNECE||United Nation Economic Commission for Europe|
|USA||United States of America|
|Country and Reference||Year||No. of Ind.||List of Indicators—As Listed in the National Bioeconomy Strategies|
|USA ||2012||4||Revenues from genetically modified plants and microbes; Pharmaceutical industry productivity; Employment and putput by industry; R&D costs|
|South Africa ||2013||18||Number of publications and citations in high impact journals per capita; Size of bio-innovation workforce as percentage of science and technology workforce; Number of research chairs, centres of excellence, technology platforms and multi-disciplinary research and development programmmes supported; Bio-economy research and development as a percentage of GERD; Number of patents granted; Number of collaborative product development partnerships; Availability of technology development and assimilation infrastructure; Number of technology-transfer transactions; Availability of incubation facilities of bioinnovation firms; Number of regulatory approvals for health products; Revenues/sales of life science products, processes and services; Number of field trials with GMO crops; Number of bio-innovation firms, including dedicated bio-innovation firms by sector; Venture capital invested in bio-innovation firms; Technology balance of payment of bioinnovation outputs; Number of joint ventures and strategic alliances between local bio-innovation firms and international partners; Multinational corporations in bio-economy sectors locating research and development facilities locally; Types of biotechnology used by firms|
|Finland ||2014||16||Bioeconomy output; Bioeconomy value added; The number employed; The share of BE employed in the national economy; Raw material inputs; value added to raw material streams; Raw material inputs used; Greenhouse gas emissions avoided; Total use of natural resources; Growth and harvested volumes of standing timber; Growth and harvested volumes of cereal crops; Growth and harvested volumes of fish bag; Endangered species; Urban waste; Ecosystem services; Environmental and resource efficiency|
|Malaysia ||2015||5||Bioeconomy investments; Employment in bioeconomy sectors and estimated yearly income; Revenues of BioNexus Status Companies; R&D spending in bioeconomy; Patent applications|
|Public investment and number of activities; private investment and number of activities; Final Production; Added Value; Employee numbers; Exports. The last four are measured for the sectors and areas of: Agriculture; Food industry; Forestry Products; Industrial chemicals; Pharmaceutical and nutritional by-products; Biofuels; Renewable energy of biological origin; Other rural area services; Processed waste; Sustainability indicators|
|Denmark ||2018||9||Resource productivity; Renewable energy, share of total energy consumption; Production costs (shares of different costs); Experienced quality in transport infrastructure; Production costs (shares of different costs); Proportion of recycling of total waste; Waste treatment; GDP; Domestic material consumption|
|United Kingdom ||2018||15||Annual turnover of the UK industrial biotechnology and bioenergy sectors; Forest cover; Industrial biotechnology funding; Investment in education and skills; Investment in low carbon industrial innovation; Jobs, employment; Number of members of the Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Centre; Number of members of the Networks in Industrial Biotechnology and Bioenergy; Renewable transport fuel; Production of sustainable aviation fuels; Resource productivity; Waste processing and materials recovery market; Waste; Converted household waste (into biofuel)|
|Italy ||2018||26||Agricultural biomass production—import of agricultural biomass; Blue biomass production—import of blue biomass; Forestry biomass production—import of forestry biomass; Waste biomass production—import of waste biomass; Firms in total bioeconomy sectors; Firms in bioeconomy subsectors; Innovative start up in total bioeconomy sectors; Innovative start up in bioeconomy subsectors; Employment in total bioeconomy sectors; Employment in bioeconomy subsectors; Tertiary education; R&D employment in total bioeconomy sectors; R&D employment in bioeconomy subsectors; University courses in bioeconomy sectors; Research Institute in bioeconomy sectors; IPRs (patent, trademark, design) applications in total bioeconomy sectors; IPRs (patent, trademark, design) applications in bioeconomy subsectors; Private R&D expenditure; Public R&D expenditure; Population growth; Population 15–65 years; GDP; Exports of total bioeconomy sectors related goods; Exports of bioeconomy subsectors related goods; Imports of total bioeconomy sectors related goods; Imports of bioeconomy subsectors related goods|
|Country and Reference||Year||No. of Ind.||List of Indicators—As Listed in the Indicator Projects|
|EFI ||2016||12||Resource use; Resource productivity; Resource and materials efficiency; Water footprint; natural resources index; Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption; Indirect land use/embodied land for agriculture and forestry products; Red List Index of threatened species; Carbon footprint of the forest and harvested wood chain (carbon stock changes); Greenhouse gas balance (emissions and sequestration), Employment in forest-based bioeconomy sectors, and contribution to regional employment; Eco-innovation index|
|MontBioeco ||2018||30||Number of employed persons in rural and urban areas; Value added; Contribution to the GDP; Investment in research and innovation for creating jobs and maintaining competitiveness; Export; Import; Production of renewable energy incl. production of biofuels and biogas; Material and waste recycling and recovery rates; Material replacing non-renewable resources (bio-materials); Public financial support and private investments for reducing dependence on non-renewable resources; Investment in research and innovation for reducing dependence on non-renewable resources; Carbon sequestration; Forest carbon emissions/sinks; Greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture; Water area carbon emissions/sinks; Public financial support and private investments for mitigating and adaptation; Investment in research and innovation for mitigating and adapting climate change; Domestic food supply of the food commodities in terms of production, import and stock change; Agricultural products; Fish products; Non-wood forest products; New food products; Public financial support and private investments for reducing dependence on non-renewable resources; Investment in research and innovation for ensuring food security; Land cover; Resource availability; Sustainable resource use; Environmental protection; Public financial support and private investments for ecosystem services; Investment in research and innovation for managing natural resources sustainably.|
|Biomonitor ||2019||25||Availability of food; Access to food; Utilization; Stability; Sustainability threshold levels for bioeconomy technologies; Biodiversity; Land cover; Primary Biomass production; Sustainable resource use; Bio-energy replacing non-renewable energy; Bio-material replacing non-renewable resources; Biomass self-sufficiency rate; Material use efficiency; Certified bio-based products, Greenhouse gas emissions|
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|Year of Publication||Country||National Bioeconomy Strategy|
|2012||USA||National Bioeconomy Blueprint—Indicators |
|2013||South Africa||Bio-economy Strategy, South Africa—Indicators of critical factors |
|2014||Finland||Finnish Bioeconomy Strategy—Key indicators |
|2015||Malaysia||Bioeconomy Transformation Programme—|
Bioeconomy Contribution Index 
|2016||Spain||Spanish Bioeconomy Strategy 2030 Horizon—Evaluation Index |
|2018||Denmark||Strategy for Circular Economy—Indicators |
|2018||United Kingdom||A national bioeconomy strategy to 2030—Indicators |
|2018||Italy||A new bioeconomy strategy for a sustainable Italy—|
Key Performance Indicators 
|Sustainable Development Goals (Short Text Versions)||Keywords Used for Screening of|
SDG-Related Wording and Indicators
|1. No poverty||Poverty, poverty reduction, tenure, access, investment|
|2. Zero hunger||Hunger, food insecurity, food security, nutrition, agriculture, productivity, production, farmers, technology|
|3. Good health and well-being||Well-being, human, health, nutrition, diseases|
|4. Quality education||Education, training, learning, research, technology, inclusivity, skills|
|5. Gender equality||Gender equality, equal rights, empowerment of women|
|6. Clean water and sanitation||Water, water resource, pollution, reduced water consumption, water efficiency, wastewater|
|7. Affordable and clean energy||Energy, renewable energy, energy efficiency, energy intensity|
|8. Decent work and economic growth||Employment, unemployment, economic growth, economic productivity, resource efficiency, consumption, production, innovation, tourism|
|9. Industry, innovation and infrastructure||Infrastructure, industrialization, innovation, transport, GDP, value added, employment, resource efficiency, CO2 emission, research and development expenditures, researcher|
|10. Reduced inequalities||Equal opportunity|
|11. Sustainable cities and communities||Communities, cities, waste, waste processing|
|12. Responsible consumption and production||Production, consumption, sustainable management, natural resources, efficiency, value added, GDP, waste, recycling, reuse, fuel, fossil-fuel subsidies|
|13. Climate action||Climate change, climate impacts, carbon|
|14. Life below water||Oceans, seas, marine resources, inland water, fish stocks, fishing, overfishing|
|15. Life on land||Terrestrial ecosystems, forest, afforestation, reforestation, desertification, degradation, restoration, sustainable use, sustainable forest management, biomass, biodiversity, conservation, protected areas, certification|
|16. Peace, justice, and strong institutions||Peace, justice, institutions, rule of law, public access to information|
|17. Partnership for the goals||International cooperation, revenue, exports|
|Sustainable Development Goals (Short text versions)||Italy ||UN ||Global BE Summit ||Authors’ Findings||Why Can the Bioeconomy Help to Achieve SDGs?|
|1. No poverty||x||The increasing demand for bioeconomy products may lead to increased employment and thus higher household income, therefore reducing poverty .|
|2. Zero hunger||x||x||x||In applying innovative production and processing technologies, sustainable agriculture may lead to improved food security and therefore to improved nutrition [17,27,37].|
|3. Good health and well-being||x||x||The bioeconomy may improve living standards and human well-being through e.g., bio-based pharmaceuticals .|
|4. Quality education||x||Access to equal education, training and skills may benefit growing bioeconomy labor markets [17,37].|
|6. Clean water and sanitation||x||x||In the bioeconomy, wastewater treatment is a renewable source of energy, fertilizers, and chemicals .|
|7. Affordable and clean energy||x||x||x||x||Sustainable energy reduces dependence on non-renewable and unsustainable resources; it may help to boost the development of society .|
|8. Decent work and economic growth||x||x||x||A sustainable and circular bioeconomy may result in economic growth and therefore benefit society as a whole .|
|9. Industry, innovation and infrastructure||x||x||Infrastructure investment, sustainable industrialization and the application of innovation is key to bioeconomy development .|
|11. Sustainable cities and communities||x||x||Cities may become major circular bioeconomy hubs with optimized waste processing and materials recovery .|
|12. Responsible consumption and production||x||x||x||x||All bioeconomy sectors depend on sustainable production and may pave the way for a changing consumption behavior [27,37].|
|13. Climate action||x||x||x||The bioeconomy as a whole may contribute to the mitigation of climate change through “negative emissions” and carbon sinks [27,37].|
|14. Life below water||x||x||x||x||The sustainable use, protection and restoration of marine and inland water ecosystems is a precondition of a bioeconomy [17,27].|
|15. Life on land||x||x||x||x||The sustainable use, protection and restoration of terrestrical ecosystems is a precondition of a bioeconomy [17,37].|
|17. Partnership for the goals||x||A bioeoconomy may provide opportunities for new business models and expanding global markets .|
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