Next Article in Journal
Collaborative Learning Communities for Sustainable Employment through Visual Tools
Previous Article in Journal
The Relationship between Primary Energy Consumption and Real Gross Domestic Product: Evidence from Major Asian Countries
Previous Article in Special Issue
Influences of Nutrient Sources on the Alternation of Nutrient Limitations and Phytoplankton Community in Jiaozhou Bay, Southern Yellow Sea of China
Open AccessArticle

Strategies for Sustainable and Circular Management of Phosphorus in the Baltic Sea Region: The Holistic Approach of the InPhos Project

Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Wybickiego 7A, 31-261 Cracow, Poland
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Bologna, Via Fontanelle 40, 47121 Forlì, Italy
Proman Management GmbH, Weingartenstrasse 92, 2214 Auersthal, Austria
Outotec GmbH & Co KG, Ludwig-Erhard-Strasse 21, 61440 Oberursel, Germany
Institute of Environmental Engineering, Kaunas University of Technology, Gedimino g, 50, LT-44239 Kaunas, Lithuania
Department of Environmental Science, University of Latvia, Raina Blvd 19, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
Institute of General Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Materials Science and Applied Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Paula Valdena 3/7, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia
GTK Mintec, Geological Survey of Finland, Tutkijankatu 1, 83500 Outokumpu, Finland
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Energy and Materials, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden
Department of Technology Mangement and Economics, Environmental Systems Analysis, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(6), 2567;
Received: 26 February 2020 / Revised: 15 March 2020 / Accepted: 20 March 2020 / Published: 24 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Eutrophication and Sustainable Management of Water)
Despite the significant reduction of phosphorus (P) discharge in the Baltic Sea in the last decades, obtained through the implementation of some approaches within the Helsinki Convention, eutrophication is still considered the biggest problem for the Baltic Sea environment. Consequently, the reduction of P load is an urgent need to solve, but the complexity of both the environmental and legislative context of the area makes this process difficult (more than in the past). Eutrophication is an intricate issue requiring a proper framework of governance that is not easy to determine in the Baltic Sea Region where the needs of several different countries converge. To identify the most suitable strategy to reduce the eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, the InPhos project (no. 17022, 2018–2019, funded by the European Institute of Innovation & Technology (EIT) Raw Materials) adopted a holistic approach considering technical, political, economic, environmental and social aspects of P management. With the aims to raise awareness about the P challenge, foster the dialogue among all the stakeholders, and find solutions already developed in other countries (such as Germany and Switzerland) to be transferred in the Baltic Sea Region, the InPhos project consortium applied the methodology proposed in this paper, consisting of three main phases: (i) analysis of the available technologies to remove P from waste streams that contribute to eutrophication; (ii) analysis of the main streams involving P in Baltic Sea countries to highlight the potential of more sustainable and circular P management; (iii) study of the current context (e.g., already-existing initiatives and issues). This approach allowed us to identify four categories of recommendations and practical actions proposed to improve P management in the Baltic Sea region. During the project, the consortium mainly addressed social aspects. Following steps beyond the project will be more quantitative to determine the techno-economic feasibility of circular P management in selected demo cases in the region. View Full-Text
Keywords: phosphorus management; circular economy; Baltic Sea; eutrophication phosphorus management; circular economy; Baltic Sea; eutrophication
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Smol, M.; Preisner, M.; Bianchini, A.; Rossi, J.; Hermann, L.; Schaaf, T.; Kruopienė, J.; Pamakštys, K.; Klavins, M.; Ozola-Davidane, R.; Kalnina, D.; Strade, E.; Voronova, V.; Pachel, K.; Yang, X.; Steenari, B.-M.; Svanström, M. Strategies for Sustainable and Circular Management of Phosphorus in the Baltic Sea Region: The Holistic Approach of the InPhos Project. Sustainability 2020, 12, 2567.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop