2. Current Alternative Practice Discourses
2.1. Hegemonic Discourses
2.2. Towards a Pluralistic Framework
3. Situating the Organic Movements in Bangkok and Chennai
3.1. Material and Methods
3.2. The Stakeholders in the Organic Movements in Bangkok and Chennai
4. Analyzing the Organic Food Movements in Bangkok and Chennai
4.1. The Continuity and Re-emergence of the Movement
‘around 30 years ago, we found the very intelligence farmer in the rural area that they can create their own concept about the integrated farming’ (interview, organic urban gardening pioneer, Bangkok).
‘They have a lot of debts. They are very poor health and they is no hope in the future’ (interview, organic pioneer and NGO member, Bangkok).
‘Because they don’t get […] any benefit from the green revolution. Even the high yield, they can grow two or three times per year, but the input is a lot. They must buy everything’ (interview, organic pioneer and NGO member, Bangkok).
Embracing of Local Knowledge
‘A lot of it is also consistent with the sustainable agriculture […] because we use local knowledge’ (interview, trustee of a foundation for indigenous knowledge, Chennai).
4.2. Local Sustainability Notions
‘We start from most of [the] farmers’ —while organic farming scenes in other countries often began from initial concepts ‘like a Biodynamic […] the lecturer, like Steiner’ (interview, organic urban gardening pioneer, Bangkok).
‘The first time is good because the yield is increased by using of the chemical inputs, but after that, around 20 years ago, we found that it’s not good now’, and eventually, ‘some farmers in the remote area […] created their own integrated farming’. ‘Integrate farming is […] our local wisdom, especially in Bangkok’, where canals integrated with the land allow for efficient irrigation; therefore, ‘we grew a lot of the mixed farming at that time […], for the Chinese people and the local Thai people, too’.
‘And the surplus, we just give to another. […] We have enough for you’ (interview, organic farming pioneer, Bangkok).
4.3. Mindfulness and Spirituality
‘if I don’t follow a simple life, I will not have time, I will not have energy, I will not have money to spend for the others’ (interview, agro-ecological farming expert, Bangkok).
‘Seed is sacred, land is sacred, water is sacred. Starting to do ploughing is sacred […] Starting to do harvesting is sacred. Harvesting is the start of the festival. Finishing the harvest is sacred, because when you finish your harvest, you do a ritual. […] And the first harvest is always given to the temple. For most of the farmers, even today’ (interview, ecologist, Chennai).
Conflicts of Interest
- Jones, A.; Murphy, J.T. Practice and Economic Geography. 2010. Geography Compass, 4 (4). Available online: http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/2596/ (accessed on 5 August 2018).
- Abrahams, C.N. Globally Useful Conceptions of Alternative Food Networks in the Developing South: The Case of Johannesburg’s Urban Food Supply System; ERA: Edinburgh, UK, 2006; Available online: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/277365.pdf (accessed on 17 December 2018).
- Blumberg, R. Alternative food networks and farmer livelihoods: A spatializing livelihoods perspective. Geoforum 2018, 88, 161–173. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Freidberg, S.; Goldstein, L. Alternative food in the global south: Reflections on a direct marketing initiative in Kenya. J. Rural Stud. 2011, 27, 24–34. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Maye, D.; Kirwan, J. Alternative food networks. Sociopedia ISA 2010, 1–12. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sánchez Hernández, J.L. Alternative Food Networks: Concept, Typology, and Adaptation to the Spanish Context. Boletín Asoc. Geógrafos Españoles 2009, 49, 375–380. [Google Scholar]
- Whatmore, S.; Stassart, P.; Renting, H. What’s Alternative about Alternative Food Networks? Environ. Plan. A 2003, 35, 389–391. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Maye, D. Moving Alternative Food Networks beyond the Niche. Int. J. Sociol. Agric. Food 2013, 20, 383–389. [Google Scholar]
- Anguelovski, I. Alternative food provision conflicts in cities: Contesting food privilege, injustice, and whiteness in Jamaica Plain, Boston. Geoforum 2015, 58, 184–194. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Guthman, J. Bringing good food to others: Investigating the subjects of alternative food practice. Cult. Geogr. 2008, 15, 431–447. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Slocum, R. Whiteness, space and alternative food practice. Geoforum 2007, 38, 520–533. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Renting, H.; Marsden, T.K.; Banks, J. Understanding Alternative Food Networks: Exploring the Role of Short Food Supply Chains in Rural Development. Environ. Plan. A 2003, 35, 393–411. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Goodman, D.; DuPuis, M.E.; Goodman, M.K. Alternative Food Networks, Knowledge, Practice, and Politics; Routledge: Abingdon, UK, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Kasser, T. Psychological Need Satisfaction, Personal Well-Being, and Ecological Sustainability. Ecopsychology 2009, 1, 175–180. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Batat, W.; Manna, V.; Ulusoy, E.; Peter, P.C.; Ulusoy, E.; Vicdan, H.; Hong, S. New paths in researching “alternative” consumption and well-being in marketing: Alternative food consumption/Alternative food consumption: What is “alternative”? Rethinking “literacy” in the adoption of AFC/Social class dynamics in AFC. Mark. Theory 2016, 16, 561. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Alatas, S.F. The Definition and Types of Alternative Discourses, Unknown. Available online: http://www.ios.sinica.edu.tw/cna/download/5b_Alatas_2.pdf (accessed on 19 August 2018).
- Bell, D.; Valentine, G. Consuming Geographies, We are Where We Eat; Routledge: London, UK, 1997; ISBN 0-415-13767-5. [Google Scholar]
- Pratt, J.; Luetchford, P.; Pratt, J.C.; Luetchford, P. Food for Change, The Politics and Values of Social Movements; PlutoPress: London, UK, 2014; ISBN 9780745334486. [Google Scholar]
- Gibson-Graham, J.K. Diverse economies: Performative practices for ‘other worlds’. Prog. Hum. Geogr. 2008, 32, 613–632. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Goodman, D.; Goodman, M.K. Alternative Food Networks. In International Encyclopedia of Human Geography; Kitchin, R., Thrift, N., Eds.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2009; pp. 1–13. [Google Scholar]
- Hillebrand, S.; Zademach, H.-M. Alternative Economies and Spaces: Introductory Remarks. In Alternative Economies and Spaces: New Perspectives for a Sustainable Economy; Zademach, H.-M., Hillebrand, S., Eds.; Transcript Verlag: Bielefeld, Germany, 2013; pp. 9–22. ISBN 978-3-8376-2498-4. [Google Scholar]
- Mason, P. Viewpoint: Manuell Castells on the Rise of Alternative Economic Cultures. 2012. Available online: https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b006r4vz (accessed on 1 August 2018).
- Daya, S.; Authar, R. Self, others and objects in an ‘alternative economy’: Personal narratives from the Heiveld Rooibos Cooperative. Geoforum 2012, 43, 885–893. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sassatelli, R. The political morality of food: Discourses, contestation and alternative consumption. In Qualities of Food, 1st ed.; Harvey, M., McMeekin, A., Warde, A., Eds.; Manchester University Press: Manchester, NY, USA, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- Mazrui, A.A. Foreword: The Seven Biases of Eurocentrism: A Diagnostic Introduction. In The Challenge of Eurocentrism; Kanth, R.K., Ed.; Palgrave Macmillan US: New York, NY, USA, 2009; pp. xi–xix. [Google Scholar]
- Sharp, J.P. Geographies of Postcolonialism, Spaces of Power and Representation; Sage: Los Angeles, CA, USA; London, UK; New Delhi, India; Singapore; Washington, DC, USA, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Said, E.W. Orientalismus, 5th ed.; Auflage S. Fischer: Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 2017; ISBN 978-3-10-071008-6. [Google Scholar]
- McGee, T.G. Western Geography and the Third World. Am. Behav. Sci. 1978, 22, 93–114. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Flick, U. (Ed.) An Introduction to Qualitative Research; Sage: Los Angeles, CA, USA; London, UK; New Delhi, India; Singapore; Washington, DC, USA, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Mayring, P. Einführung in Die Qualitative Sozialforschung, Eine Anleitung zu Qualitativem Denken; Beltz Verlag: Weinheim, Germany; Basel, Switzerland, 2002. [Google Scholar]
- Cupchik, G. Constructivist Realism: An Ontology That Encompasses Positivist and Constructivist Approaches to the Social Sciences. FQS Forum Qual. Soz. 2001, 2, 7. [Google Scholar]
- Buechler, S.M. New Social Movement Theories. Sociol. Q. 1995, 36, 441–464. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Giddens, A.; Sutton, P.W. Essential Concepts in Sociology; Polity: Cambridge, UK, 2014; ISBN 978-0-7456-4985-6. [Google Scholar]
- Melucci, A. The Process of Collective Identity, Chapter 3. In Social Movements and Culture, Social Movements, Protest, and Contention; Johnston, H., Klandermanns, B., Eds.; University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis, MN, USA, 1995; pp. 41–63. [Google Scholar]
- Scott, A. Ideology and the New Social Movements; Unwin Hyman: London, UK, 1990. [Google Scholar]
- Thornberg, R. Informed Grounded Theory. Scand. J. Educ. Res. 2012, 56, 243–259. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Thornberg, R.; Charmaz, K. Grounded Theory. In Qualitative Research: An Introduction to Methods and Designs, 1st ed.; Lapan, S.D., Quartaroli, M.T., Riemer, F.J., Eds.; Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, CA, USA, 2012; pp. 41–68. ISBN 978-0-470-54800-4. [Google Scholar]
- Balasubramanian, A.V.; A Hand to the Plough. We Need an Alternative Approach to Farming that Builds on Indigenous Knowledge and Resources. Available online: http://archives.mydigitalfc.com/indian-knowledge-series/hand-plough-378 (accessed on 5 December 2017).
- Bopp, J. New Momentum to Bangkok’s Organic Food Movement: Interspersed Scenes Led by Mindful Pioneers. Ph.D Thesis, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- National Economic and Social Development Board. Thailand’s Social Development in Q4/2013 and the Year 2013, Bangkok. 2013. Available online: http://www.nesdb.go.th/nesdb_en/main.php?filename=social_dev_report (accessed on 2 April 2016).
- Thaitakoo, D.; McGrath, B.; Srithanyarat, S.; Palopakon, Y. Bangkok: The Ecology and Design of an Aqua-City. In Resilience in Ecology and Urban; Pickett, S.T.A., Cadenasso, M.L., McGrath, B., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, USA, 2013; pp. 427–442. [Google Scholar]
- Falvey, L. Sustainability: Elusive or Illusion? Wise Environmental Intervention; The Institute for International Development: Adelaide, Australia, 2004. [Google Scholar]
|Methodology||Qualitative: fieldwork, document analysis||Qualitative: fieldwork, parallel document analysis|
|Tools||Observation: 3 periods, 30 months|
43 expert interviews
25 consumer interviews
|Observation: 2 period, 11 months|
29 expert interviews
Explorative study peri-urban Chennai
2 Green Urban Practices Workshops
Action research: school gardening sessionsLiterature review
|Theorization||New social movements, voluntary simplicity, identity, personal lifestyles|
natural farming concepts, urban farming
|Household||Public / Institutional||Enterprise||Network|
|Rural, peri-urban, urban farmers|
Farming communitiesOrganic consumers
Schools, universities, hospitals
Health Promotion Foundation
Department of Agricultural Extension
|Health shops, supermarkets|
Community supported agriculture (CSA) delivery schemes
Organic social enterprise
|Organic farmers’ markets|
Networks for research on wellbeing; local knowledge systems
Urban gardening networks
Back-to-the-land networkSeed saving networks
© 2020 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).