# State-of-the Art-Powerhouse, Dam Structure, and Turbine Operation and Vibrations

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Dam Classification

#### 2.1. Embankment Dams

#### 2.1.1. Earth-Fill Dams

#### 2.1.2. Rock-Fill Dam

#### 2.2. Concrete Dams

#### 2.2.1. Gravity Dams

#### 2.2.2. Buttress Dams

#### 2.2.3. Arch Dams

#### 2.3. Classification Based on Dam Size

#### 2.4. Classification Based on Construction Material Rigidity

#### 2.5. Classification Based on Vibration Effect

#### 2.5.1. Embankment Dams (Large, Medium, Small)

#### 2.5.2. Concrete Dams (Large, Medium, Small)

#### 2.5.3. Composite Dam

## 3. Powerhouse

#### 3.1. Powerhouse Facilities

#### 3.1.1. Run-of-River

#### 3.1.2. Storage

#### 3.1.3. Pumped Storage

#### 3.1.4. Micro Plant

#### 3.2. Main Components of a Plant

#### 3.2.1. Intake, Penstock, and Surge Chamber

#### 3.2.2. Turbines

- (1)
- Impulse turbines: As shown in Figure 9, these turbines allow water to enter into the casing with a substantial pressure and pass through where jets of water from a nozzle at a high speed strike the symmetrically shaped blades fixed to the rotor. The kinetic power of the water is transferred via momentum to the rotating wheel [80], and the strain is transferred to the inlet and the outlet. The resulting impulse from the jet helps to rotate the turbine, hence called impulse turbine [81,82,83,84].
- (2)
- Reaction turbines: This type of turbine takes water from upstream of the dam and transports it through the penstock under pressure where the vector sum of impulse and reactive force together strike the asymmetrical shape blades [85,86,87]. These turbines are constructed within the powerhouse that has been installed in different directions depending on the site topography, the head of water, and the discharge [88]. The types of reaction turbines are classified as Francis or Kaplan turbines as outlined in Figure 10.

#### 3.2.3. Generators, Transformers, Transmission Lines, and Outlets

## 4. Finite Element Modeling

#### 4.1. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

#### 4.2. Vibration Effect on Dam Body

#### 4.3. Earliest Dam Studies

- (1)
- Specific attributes of the water represent the reservoir mass added to the dam.
- (2)
- The Eulerian approach can be used to describe the dam–reservoir interaction [113]. The employed variables for this description are (i) displacements in the dam and (ii) pressure and velocity potential in the water.
- (3)

#### 4.4. 2D Dam Modeling

#### 4.5. 3D Dam Modeling

#### 4.6. The Vibration of Turbines and Powerhouse

## 5. Turbine Analysis

#### 5.1. Francis Turbine Modeling

#### 5.2. Kaplan Turbine Modeling

## 6. Main Related Dam-Hydropower Plant Problems

#### 6.1. Cavitation in the Draft Tube

#### 6.2. Hydraulic Turbine Structure Design

#### 6.3. Powerhouse Vibration Analysis

## 7. State-of-the-Art Assessment and Evaluation

- (1)
- Maximum and minimum water output choices,
- (2)
- Effect of vibration on the life of the operation,
- (3)
- Electricity-related deviations,
- (4)
- Environmental constraints,
- (5)
- Revenue variation and its effect on operational activities,
- (6)
- Market variation,
- (7)
- Policy changes, and
- (8)
- Hazards during operation affecting productivity.

## 8. Possible Future Research Directions

- (1)
- The operation of the powerhouse at the dam site is one of the important factors that should be considered in the analysis of dam safety. The effect of seismic activity on the dam body should be integrated with the powerhouse effect. Most of the published studies either only focused on reducing the impact of cavitation and pressure fluctuations in the turbine draft tube or on the analysis of seismic effect on the dam bodies. Hence, integration of the vibrational effect due to the operation of reaction turbines with and without seismic effects should be further investigated.
- (2)
- Over time, various advancing techniques have been used to model dam operation. Among several techniques, AI models have achieved great results and shown promises in the near future. AI models use various optimization techniques and models, which help designers to comprehensively assess, predict, and manage large amounts of data. This, in turn, helps policymakers, engineers, and project managers to manage and operate the system more efficiently. Many AI models have been applied to the modeling and operation of dams and reservoirs considering different stochastic hydrological parameters [241]. Many AI models have been employed; however, faster problem-solving models are required along with better optimizers, including methods that can select the input and manage non-linear data and more experimental data to develop an effective model.
- (3)
- Turbine productivity is usually determined based on the maximum and the minimum upstream water levels. Hence, for optimal turbine system operation, computations of the principal stresses within the dam body and powerhouse should be examined based on the water level.
- (4)
- In the majority of the published studies, turbine model evaluations within the dam powerhouse were investigated individually. Conceptually, this is not practical from an engineering point of view. The vibrational effect on the dam body and the powerhouse should be simulated as a cohesive unit.
- (5)
- Dam emergency action plans should be implemented, coupled with the development of improved systems for flood prediction.
- (6)
- The reliability of the dam gates must be improved to ensure the availability of all dams during a flood.
- (7)
- The main body of the dams should be grouted using cement to reduce leakages and improve performance.
- (8)
- The foundation drains must be renovated to ensure the drainage system is working properly; a good dissipation of uplift pressures must also be ensured.
- (9)
- Detailed seismic studies must be performed to analyze the chances of seismic-event-related failure modes.
- (10)
- A risk model architecture must be implemented.
- (11)
- Advancements in computer-based capabilities have resulted in the development of numerous methods for predicting the extent of cavitation development and its characteristics over propeller blades. Hence, CFD can be used to conduct turbine cavitation studies using a barotropic state equation.
- (12)
- The availability of data is crucial for dam construction, hydropower generation, ecological and hydrological protection, and smooth operational activities. However, regular, continuous, and reliable data are difficult to obtain. A well-equipped and strategically designed network of hydrological, water quality, and biological monitoring stations should be in place to collect data on aquatic animals, flow regime, water temperature, nutrients, and sediment load [242]. The environmental impact basement should be more detailed [243]. These assessments could help with more consistent and reliable policymaking, thereby increasing the applications of hydro-electrical dams.
- (13)
- By applying various assessments, monitoring, and simulation using previous dam data or prototype structure operational data, much better hydro-dams can be designed. In addition to that, for the more efficient performance of turbines and dams, there is need of economical maintenance methods, and mini-hydro plants are better suited for these purposes. They are cheaper, efficient and operation and maintenance is simpler than large projects. To increase the number of clean and sustainable energy sources, governments can support initiatives by providing financial subsidies like fixed feed-in or premium tariffs [244]. However, the number of subsidies provided and environmental impact per 1 MW production of energy must be estimated.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 1.**Cross-sectional view of earth-fill dam [30].

**Figure 2.**Diagram of concrete faced rock-fill dam [31]. The interior section can be divided into three zones: (1) Zone I, anti-seepage strengthening zone; (2) Zone II, cushion zone/second anti-seepage defense; and (3) Zone III, main embankment rock fill mass.

**Figure 3.**View of a gravity dam section and simple stability analysis during the uplift of the base [34].

**Figure 4.**A cross-sectional view of the buttress dam, Iran [36].

**Figure 6.**Central parts of a hydropower station [71].

**Figure 7.**Storage and run-of-river powerhouse, modified from Corà [74].

**Figure 8.**Pumped storage powerhouse [76]. P.E. is potential energy.

**Figure 9.**Impulse turbines [80].

**Figure 11.**Control volumes in the finite volume method used for the discretization [100].

Category | Storage (10^{6} m^{3}) | Height (m) |
---|---|---|

Small | < 1.23 | < 12.19 |

Medium | ≥ 1.23 and ≤ 61.67 | ≥ 12.19 and ≤ 30.48 |

Large | ≥ 61.67 | > 30.48 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Yaseen, Z.M.; Ameen, A.M.S.; Aldlemy, M.S.; Ali, M.; Abdulmohsin Afan, H.; Zhu, S.; Sami Al-Janabi, A.M.; Al-Ansari, N.; Tiyasha, T.; Tao, H.
State-of-the Art-Powerhouse, Dam Structure, and Turbine Operation and Vibrations. *Sustainability* **2020**, *12*, 1676.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041676

**AMA Style**

Yaseen ZM, Ameen AMS, Aldlemy MS, Ali M, Abdulmohsin Afan H, Zhu S, Sami Al-Janabi AM, Al-Ansari N, Tiyasha T, Tao H.
State-of-the Art-Powerhouse, Dam Structure, and Turbine Operation and Vibrations. *Sustainability*. 2020; 12(4):1676.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041676

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Yaseen, Zaher Mundher, Ameen Mohammed Salih Ameen, Mohammed Suleman Aldlemy, Mumtaz Ali, Haitham Abdulmohsin Afan, Senlin Zhu, Ahmed Mohammed Sami Al-Janabi, Nadhir Al-Ansari, Tiyasha Tiyasha, and Hai Tao.
2020. "State-of-the Art-Powerhouse, Dam Structure, and Turbine Operation and Vibrations" *Sustainability* 12, no. 4: 1676.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041676