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Trends and Future Directions in Crop Energy Analyses: A Focus on Iran

1
Department of Agricultural Mechanization Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht 4199613776, Iran
2
Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Berea College, Berea, KY 40404, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(23), 10002; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122310002
Received: 14 September 2020 / Revised: 20 November 2020 / Accepted: 27 November 2020 / Published: 30 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Economic Performance of Farming and Food Systems)
This systematic review critically analyzes the literature on the study of energy-use patterns in agricultural crop systems in Iran. We examine the relevant methodologies and research trends from 2008 to 2019, a particularly active and productive period. Initially, we find researchers using energy audits and regression modeling to estimate energy-use patterns. Then economic and environmental-emissions audits are more commonly incorporated into analyses. Finally, the application of different Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods are observed in papers. The main focus of this study is on energy-use patterns, economic modelling, and environmental emissions. We then address critical issues, including sample size, energy equivalents, and additional practical energy-saving recommendations which can be considered by researchers in future analyses. The application of AI in the analysis of agricultural systems, and how it can be used to achieve sustainable agriculture, is discussed with the aim of providing guidelines for researchers interested in energy flow in agricultural systems, especially in Iran. To achieve sustainable agriculture systems, we recommend more attention be given toward considering the impact of social factors in addition to energy, environmental and economic factors. Finally, this review should guide other researchers in choosing appropriate crop types and regions in need study to avoid repetitive studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy; environmental and economic assessment; agricultural systems; sustainability energy; environmental and economic assessment; agricultural systems; sustainability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Banaeian, N.; Zangeneh, M.; Clark, S. Trends and Future Directions in Crop Energy Analyses: A Focus on Iran. Sustainability 2020, 12, 10002. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122310002

AMA Style

Banaeian N, Zangeneh M, Clark S. Trends and Future Directions in Crop Energy Analyses: A Focus on Iran. Sustainability. 2020; 12(23):10002. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122310002

Chicago/Turabian Style

Banaeian, Narges, Morteza Zangeneh, and Sean Clark. 2020. "Trends and Future Directions in Crop Energy Analyses: A Focus on Iran" Sustainability 12, no. 23: 10002. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122310002

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