A DPSIR Assessment on Ecosystem Services Challenges in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: Coping with the Impacts of Sand Mining
- to analyse the main economic drivers of sand mining;
- to analyse the pressures derived from associated anthropogenic activities;
- to assess the ecological and social state of the Mekong River and delta region;
- to assess the ecological and social eco-services impacts on the region;
- to suggest the entities responsible for possible management measures and responses to mitigate the effects of sand mining and growing sand demand;
- to present tools and a framework to support sustainable resource consumption.
2.1. Search Strategy and Documentation
2.2. DPSIR Framework
3. Results and Discussion
3.1.2. Economic and Infrastructure Development
3.2.1. Environmental Pressures
3.2.2. Human Behaviour Pressures
3.3.1. Environmental State
3.3.2. Human Behaviour and Health
3.4.1. Ecosystem Services
- Fresh water for individual, aquaculture, and agricultural consumption;
- Sand and gravel as sedimentation;
- Waterway transportation;
- Food resource such as fishes, water plants, herbs, medicinal species, etc.;
- Non-food resources such as wood, jute, shells, biochemicals, etc.;
- Biomass fuel or power production.
- Water resource regulation–water quality and nutrient regulation, groundwater balance across the delta region, aquifer recharge, counteraction acidification, natural filtration and water treatment;
- Erosion regulation–soil retention through natural water and land interactions, vegetative cover;
- Climate regulation–storm protection by estuary ecosystem, mitigating the saline intrusion, sea level rise, ph balance at the estuary with a natural flow, regulating temperature and precipitation, carbon, or greenhouse gas (GHG) sequestration and air quality;
- Disease regulation–changes in ecosystem services causing unchecked pests, weeds, disease-carrying vectors, etc.;
- Flood regulation–nutrient-rich sediment deposit, inundation, buffering of flood flows, erosion control through water/land interactions, and flood control infrastructure.
- Recreational activities like kayaking, rafting, fishing, and swimming through affected river flow change;
- Aesthetic values, tourism, wildlife;
- Cultural heritage–temples, pagodas, etc., alongside the bank facing landslides or erosion;
- Social relations among communities such as fishing, agricultural, aquaculture, etc.;
- Spiritual value and cultural diversity;
- Educational value, such as formal and informal knowledge within society.
3.4.2. Human Well-Being
Social and Emotional Well-Being
3.5.1. Driver-Based Responses
3.5.2. Pressure-Based Responses
3.5.3. State-Based Responses
3.5.4. Impact-Based Responses
3.6. Study Limitations
Conflicts of Interest
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|Strengthening of existing mining policies and streamlining to avoid inconsistencies.||Immediate attention|
|Strengthening the regulatory and quality control frameworks for manufactured sand (m-sand), in order to boost its wide prevalence of production and usage among the stakeholders.||Immediate attention|
|Guiding markets toward responsible production and consumption behaviour through the pricing mechanism, with strong government regulations and support from relevant civil societies to ensure harmful impacts are mitigated.||Immediate attention|
|Policy and tax instruments to make m-sand and other river sand alternatives competitive in the market. Strict actions and regular monitoring of sand price control within the market.||Long-term attention|
|Additional or increased tax on river sand, aggregates, or mining operations to create incentives or internalise the cost for alternative materials market support.||Long-term attention|
|Setting up international memorandum of understanding (MoU) for the development of optimised building construction, green infrastructures, and circular economy practices involving reduced materials and alternative secondary waste materials.||Long-term attention|
|Stringent enforcement of the existing measures to curb illegal sand mining. Further, strengthening the laws to support the closure of illegal mining.||Immediate attention|
|Regular supervision over the licensed mining sites.||Immediate attention|
|Awareness among the public and stakeholders of the benefits and quality standards of m-sand/crushed sand, to promote the shift in consumption.||Starting immediate attention with prolonged long-term attention|
|Public awareness and perception of the impacts of the excessive consumption of river sand have to be further bolstered via outreach and education. Involvement of NGOs and communities, along with possible support from the local authorities.||Starting immediate attention with prolonged long-term attention|
|Collaborations at local, provincial, national, and international levels to have updated production quality standards for secondary building material substitutes.||Immediate attention|
|Improved coordination between the authorities involved in planning and regulation, which lags at the moment.||Immediate attention|
|Government focus on investing in assessing the quantity and quality of aggregates must increase. (i.e., Constant sediment budget monitoring at regular intervals.)||Long-term attention|
|Regular river morphology monitoring in a two to five-year term to pre-plan the mitigation and restoration activities.||Long-term attention|
|Workshops and capacity-building program for stakeholders involved in the construction sector on the possible utilisation of alternative materials in various applications. Knowledge sharing and obtaining ground-level suggestion for better quality control methods and process.||Long-term attention|
|Promoting responsible production and consumption of aggregates among communities.||Long-term attention|
|Identifying weak zones along the riverbanks to reinforce embankments and flood gates.|
Identifying communities lying in the impact zones.
Identifying infrastructures and roads in prone zones, providing reinforcement of old structures if required.
|Reinforcement or modern structures for flood control, saline intrusion control, water and irrigation supply.||Immediate attention|
|Saline intrusion prevention in dry season through safe check dams or dykes, without drastic effect on the river hydrology.||Immediate attention|
|Regular checking and desilting across the Mekong River and check dams.||Immediate attention|
|Best practices for the restoration of aquatic diversity to optimise fisheries production. Creating hotspot zones over spawning and breeding grounds along the Mekong River.||Immediate attention|
|Enhanced cooperation of the governments within Mekong River Commision (MRC) for better Mekong River management and illegal sand trading. Dialogues initiated and headed by Vietnam with concern for lower stream issues and transboundary conflicts.||Immediate attention|
|Awareness among communities of the impacts of sand mining and capacity-building for local communities to report and help in enforcing anti-illegal mining measures.||Long-term attention|
|Modernising and affordable improvements in fishing and farming according to current scenarios.||Long-term attention|
|Promoting localised business utilising secondary waste-materials-based construction products.||Long-term attention|
|Empowering local communities and local governments to interact. Frequent community discussions to identify state changes in the surroundings.||Long-term attention|
|Evaluation of impacts in the delta region to target the responses to drivers, pressure, and state elements issues.||Immediate attention|
|Developing mitigation responses for different issues across DPSIR elements.||Immediate attention|
|Supportive compensation and livelihood setup for people who lose land by erosion or in erosion-prone areas.||Immediate attention|
|Restoring the ecosystem services in the various hotspots over the Mekong delta.||Long-term attention|
|Constant monitoring of the changes caused in ecosystem services.||Long-term attention|
|Remediation measures of the various state changes that cause impacts on ecosystem services and human well-being.||Long-term attention|
|Monitoring the post-remediation and restoration responses.||Long-term attention|
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S., N.A.; Hung Anh, L.; Schneider, P. A DPSIR Assessment on Ecosystem Services Challenges in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: Coping with the Impacts of Sand Mining. Sustainability 2020, 12, 9323. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229323
S. NA, Hung Anh L, Schneider P. A DPSIR Assessment on Ecosystem Services Challenges in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: Coping with the Impacts of Sand Mining. Sustainability. 2020; 12(22):9323. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229323Chicago/Turabian Style
S., Naveedh Ahmed, Le Hung Anh, and Petra Schneider. 2020. "A DPSIR Assessment on Ecosystem Services Challenges in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: Coping with the Impacts of Sand Mining" Sustainability 12, no. 22: 9323. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229323