Education for Sustainable Development—The Case of Massive Open Online Courses
2. Literature Review
2.1. The Concept of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)
- ESD has to be integrated coherently across relevant sectorial or subsectorial policies; in particular, full policy coherence between the education sector and the sustainable development sector has to be ensured;
- Political and socio-cultural realities and environmental as well as ecological challenges, which determine ESD, differ between countries; thus, locally and nationally relevant interpretations of ESD and related forms of education should be developed;
- Coordinating bodies and mechanisms should be created at different levels of the education system, along with setting targets for ESD and with supporting non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in their activities related to education.
2.2. The Role of MOOCs in the Education for Sustainable Development
- MOOCs are nowadays used as a means of making education more accessible to the people, regardless of gender, race, religion or geographical locality;
- MOOCs can make access to education easier for students with certain disabilities, such as motor impairment. However, their format may be inaccessible to students who have vision or hearing impairment, so MOOCs’ designers should break this important barriers to guarantee their accessibility so they do not discriminate any person ;
- MOOCs can be designed as an alternative way for providing scope for skill-based education at a minimum cost, offering need-based training and equipping learners with need-based skills, which are necessary for maintaining a decent standard of living ;
- With the developing of computer and Internet technologies, MOOCs could be an effective tool for transferring knowledge and it has a potential to overtake the traditional teaching method; the technology provides a higher interaction and collaboration level between instructors or lectures and peers than traditional environment for learning ;
- It also encourages people to share their knowledge and innovative thoughts by using various means of MOOCs in a wider context;
- One of the major advantage of MOOCs lies in its flexibility. The curriculum can be repeated until it is understood by the students, who can gain multiple learning ways depending on their needs;
- Students can choose between many variants of online courses (e.g., connectivist MOOCs–cMOOCs, and commercial xMOOCs); in case of cMOOCs content, is decided upon and contributed by the participants themselves to a big extent, whereas xMOOCs are based in a traditional university teaching ;
- MOOCs are an instrument of informal and lifelong learning .
4. Results and Discussion
Conflicts of Interest
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|Goal Number||Goal Name and a Short Description||Keywords/Phrases Used in Recommended Learning Topics|
|SDG 1||“No poverty”—End poverty in all its forms everywhere||Poverty; social welfare, microfinance; |
malnutrition; equal rights/access to economic resources; development cooperation; pro-poor development strategies; gender-sensitive development strategies.
|SDG 2||“Zero hunger”—End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture||Hunger; malnutrition; functions of food; food abundance, obesity; food waste; food security; international trade with food; subsidies in agriculture; GMOs; FAO; Slow Food.|
|SDG 3||Good Health and Well-Being—Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages||Promoting vaccines; healthy food; physical activity; mental health; medical consultation and education; health programs and services; sexual and reproductive health care service; family planning; drug prevention; reduction of pollution and contamination; HIV prevention programs; road traffic accidents; overweight and obesity.|
|SDG 4||“Quality Education”—Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all||The Education 2030 agenda; lifelong learning; diversity and inclusive education; public financing of education; sustainability skills and competencies; the use of ICT in education; ESD; youth empowerment.|
|SDG 5||Gender Equality—Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls||Gender inequality; gender discrimination; gender equality; pay disparity; sexual and reproductive health and rights; childcare; women financial (in) dependence.|
|SDG 6||Clean Water and Sanitation—Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all||Global water cycle; water distribution; access to safe drinking water; water quality; water sanitation; water security; water scarcity; water use efficiency; wastewater treatment; water-related programs; water resources management|
|SDG 7||Affordable and Clean Energy—Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and clean energy for all||Renewable energies; solar energy; wind energy; water energy; geothermal energy; energy efficiency; energy self-sufficiency; LESCOs; solar farms; dam projects; low carbon energy solutions; reduction of fossil fuels use; environmental impact of energy; climate change|
|SDG 8||Decent Work and Economic Growth—Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all||Models and indicators of economic growth; steady-state economies; common-welfare economies; de-growth; subsistence economies; investment;, credits; interests; banks; speculations on the stock exchange; inflation; labor force; migration; inequalities in the labor market; labor rights; forced labor; slavery and human trafficking; sustainable entrepreneurship; (social) innovation; sustainable new technologies; sustainable local economies|
|SDG 9||Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure—Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation||Sustainable information and communication technology (ICT); quality infrastructure; inclusive and sustainable innovation and industrialization; sustainable infrastructure; national grids; feed-in tariffs; expanding sustainable renewable sources; conflicts over energy; sustainable Internet; green chat groups; the ecological footprint of search-engine servers; sustainable transport infrastructure|
|SDG 10||Reduced Inequalities—Reduce inequality within and among countries||Social, economic and political inequalities; inequality measurements; social protection policies;|
global trade systems and regulations; labor standards; international development aid; migration
|SDG 11||Sustainable Cities and Communities—Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable||Sustainable energy; residential energy use, renewable energies, community energy schemes; Sustainable food; organic agriculture and permaculture, community supported agriculture, foodshed, food processing, dietary choices and habits; Urban ecology; waste management; recycling; alternative communities, healthy communities, inclusive communities, ecovillages, transition towns; water cycle; sustainable urban drainage; |
disaster preparedness and resilience
|SDG 12||Responsible Consumption and Production—Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns||Energy production and consumption; food production and consumption; sustainable lifestyles; sustainable production and consumption; sustainable products labelling systems and certificates; green economy; cradle-to-cradle; circular economy; green growth, de-growth; tourism,; waste generation and management|
|SDG 13||“Climate Action”—Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts||Greenhouse gas emissions; climate change-related hazards; institutions addressing issues of climate change; policy strategies to protect the climate; the global warming; impacts on big eco-systems and biodiversity|
|SDG 14||“Life below Water”—Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development||Water cycle; sustainable marine energy; marine resources; marine ecology; overfishing, fishing quotas; see level rise; oceans and international law; ocean pollutants; cultural ecosystem of the sea.|
|SDG 15||Life on Land—Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss||Ecology; specific ecosystems; threats to biodiversity; desertification, deforestation; ecosystem services; genetics; genetic ethics|
|SDG 16||Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions—Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels||Crime and Punishment; Corruption; corruption measurements; Climate Justice; Trade Justice; The illegal weapons trade; Drug trade; Child labour; The international criminal court|
|SDG 17||“Partnerships for the Goals”—Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development||Global governance and markets promoting sustainable development; development cooperation; development assistance; financial resources for developing countries; sustainable development measurements|
|Educational and Learning Platform||Total Number of MOOCs||Courses in Economics and Finance||Courses in Sustainable Economics (Belonging to Discipline of Economics and Finance)|
|Total Number||Sample of Courses||Total Number||Sample of Courses|
|Courses/Educational Platforms||MOOCs in Economics and Finance *||MOOCs in Sustainable Economics *|
|MOOCs offered on all 3 educational platforms||The United States (59), The United Kingdom (17), Netherlands (7), Australia (6), India (3),||International (9)|
|MOOCs offered on 2 educational platforms only||Switzerland (4), Hong Kong (3), Spain (3), South Africa (2), South Korea (2),||The United States (18), The Netherlands (7), Switzerland (3), South Africa (2),|
|MOOCs offered on 1 educational platform only||France (3), Denmark (2), Germany (2), Italy (2), Russia (2), China (1), Saudi Arabia (1), Sweden (1), International (1),||Denmark (3), France (3), Italy (3), Australia (1), Finland (1), Germany (1), Hong Kong (1), India (1), Russia (1), Spain (1), Sweden (1), Taiwan (1), The United Kingdom (1).|
|SDG||Courses in Economics and Finance||Courses in Sustainable Economics|
|Total||Coded (in %)||Total||Coded (in %)|
|Descriptive statistics measures|
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Hajdukiewicz, A.; Pera, B. Education for Sustainable Development—The Case of Massive Open Online Courses. Sustainability 2020, 12, 8542. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208542
Hajdukiewicz A, Pera B. Education for Sustainable Development—The Case of Massive Open Online Courses. Sustainability. 2020; 12(20):8542. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208542Chicago/Turabian Style
Hajdukiewicz, Agnieszka, and Bożena Pera. 2020. "Education for Sustainable Development—The Case of Massive Open Online Courses" Sustainability 12, no. 20: 8542. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208542