- freely available
Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 736; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020736
2. Materials and Methods
3. The Certainty of Managed Retreat in an Uncertain World
4. The New Zealand Governance Setting for Managed Retreat: A Gradual Revealing of Multiple Uncertainties
5. A Case Study of Matatā: Revealing the Interrelated Arenas of Governance Uncertainty
5.1. Strategic and Institutional Uncertainty
…nobody’s got any appetite to be sending in bulldozers with protesters lying on the road…When I was talking to one of our regulatory compliance team leaders he asked me the samequestions—‘How do you expect me to get these people out?’.(Participant 5)
5.2. Financial Uncertainty
Participant 10: It’s bogus! Because there’s no money to back it up!!Participant 9: There’s no trust there at all… I mean they made us all these offers for the houses, but they’ve got no money. So, they’re not really offers at all.
5.3. Cascading Spatio-Temporal Uncertainty
You’re under stress…You can’t sort of get away from it.(Participant 9)
Look I’ve watched people have heart attacks …[people] taken, put into rest homes that they didn’t want, marriages split up, because it’s constantly there, it’s always there.(Participant 10)
Participant 8: The thing is, it’s on your mind all the time. Because it takes your time, because you’re constantly fighting them, constantly looking up things to find out about it, it’s your family home, it’s everything you’ve got, invested in it.Participant 9: I’m on the pension, I haven’t got any other money, it’s all here. If I get kicked out with nothing, where am I going to go, what am I going to do? I don’t get enough money to rent a place and survive, I can’t get a mortgage…Participant 13: I’m stressed…I drink like a fish, I’ve put on that much weight you know…I don’t sleep.
Participant 14: We’re being dictated to…I won’t move because this is where I chose to live out my life. We’re all happy…nobody wants to leave… If offers had of come out in 2005 and were reasonable, people would’ve taken it. But it’s 13 years down the track.
“The indicative price they offered us might’ve seemed like a good price, but it would be about $80,000-$90,000 to shift our house… first you’ve got to find a piece of land to put the house on…it would probably gobble up absolutely everything…we are very worried… it’s a major headache.”
…they just came up everywhere. Every week, the kaumātua (elders) of the time were taking them up to the urupā and [re-]burying them… It was a big mess, but then it just carried on….(Participant 7)
A lot of us said, ‘that’s the ancestors, even the ones up in the valley, covering over’…the whole place is super tapu…because that’s an old urupā…So on my Māori side I’d like to see them move out because it needs to be left alone. We weren’t even in favor of them building there, of course we wondered why they went back [re-building post 2005]. This debris has come down to bury the urupā once and for all.(Participant 7)
Exhuming the bodies is a last resort. That discussion is quite hard. It is such a tapu process, and trying to source land and resources makes it even more difficult. Olo-Whaanga, S in …We need a new protocol for how we are going to deal with the urupā that need to be shifted, becauseMāoridom is not going to be able to cover the extraordinary costs…Awatere-Huata, D in .
Conflicts of Interest
References and Notes
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