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Open AccessArticle

New Computational Artificial Intelligence Models for Generating Synthetic Formation Bulk Density Logs While Drilling

College of Petroleum Engineering and Geosciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
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Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020686
Received: 29 November 2019 / Revised: 24 December 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2020 / Published: 17 January 2020
Synthetic well log generation using artificial intelligence tools is a robust solution for situations in which logging data are not available or are partially lost. Formation bulk density (RHOB) logging data greatly assist in identifying downhole formations. These data are measured in the field while drilling by using a density log tool in the form of either a logging while drilling (LWD) technique or (more often) by wireline logging after the formations are drilled. This is due to operational limitations during the drilling process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a predictive tool for estimating RHOB while drilling using an adaptive network-based fuzzy interference system (ANFIS), functional network (FN), and support vector machine (SVM). The proposed model uses the mechanical drilling constraints as feeding input parameters, and the conventional RHOB log data as an output parameter. These mechanical drilling parameters are usually measured while drilling, and their responses vary with different formations. A dataset of 2400 actual datapoints, obtained from a horizontal well in the Middle East, were used to build the proposed models. The obtained dataset was divided into a 70/30 ratio for model training and testing, respectively. The optimized ANFIS-based model outperformed the FN- and SVM-based models with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.93, and average absolute percentage error (AAPE) of 0.81% between the predicted and measured RHOB values. These results demonstrate the reliability of the developed ANFIS model for predicting RHOB while drilling, based on the mechanical drilling parameters. Subsequently, the ANFIS-based model was validated using unseen data from another well within the same field. The validation process yielded an AAPE of 0.97% between the predicted and actual RHOB values, which confirmed the robustness of the developed model as an effective predictive tool for RHOB. View Full-Text
Keywords: bulk density; functional networks; support vector machine; fuzzy logic; mechanical drilling parameters; logging bulk density; functional networks; support vector machine; fuzzy logic; mechanical drilling parameters; logging
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Gowida, A.; Elkatatny, S.; Al-Afnan, S.; Abdulraheem, A. New Computational Artificial Intelligence Models for Generating Synthetic Formation Bulk Density Logs While Drilling. Sustainability 2020, 12, 686.

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