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Open AccessConcept Paper

Development of the CREATE Inventory in Support of Integrated Climate and Air Quality Modeling for Asia

Department of Technology Fusion Engineering, College of Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria
School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 44919, Korea
Korea Environment Institute, Sejong 30147, Korea
College of Agriculture and Life Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon 22689, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(19), 7930;
Received: 26 August 2020 / Revised: 18 September 2020 / Accepted: 19 September 2020 / Published: 24 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
A bottom-up emissions inventory is one of the most important data sets needed to understand air quality (AQ) and climate change (CC). Several emission inventories have been developed for Asia, including Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P), Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (REAS), and Inter-Continental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX) and, while these have been used successfully for many international studies, they have limitations including restricted amounts of information on pollutant types and low levels of transparency with respect to the polluting sectors or fuel types involved. To address these shortcomings, we developed: (1) a base-year, bottom-up anthropogenic emissions inventory for Asia, using the most current parameters and international frameworks (i.e., the Greenhouse gas—Air pollution INteractions and Synergies (GAINS) model); and (2) a base-year, natural emissions inventory for biogenic and biomass burning. For (1), we focused mainly on China, South Korea, and Japan; however, we also covered emission inventories for other regions in Asia using data covering recent energy/industry statistics, emission factors, and control technology penetration. The emissions inventory (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Transport Experiment (CREATE)) covers 54 fuel classes, 201 subsectors, and 13 pollutants, namely SO2, NOx, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), NH3, OC, BC, PM10, PM2.5, CO2, CH4, N2O, and Hg. For the base-year natural emissions inventory, the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and BlueSky-Asia frameworks were used to estimate biogenic and biomass burning emissions, respectively. Since the CREATE emission inventory was designed/developed using international climate change/air quality (CC/AQ) assessment frameworks, such as GAINS, and has been fully connected with the most comprehensive emissions modeling systems—such as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Chemical Manufacturing Area Source (CMAS) system—it can be used to support various climate and AQ integrated modeling studies, both now and in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: Asia; emissions inventory; air pollutants; greenhouse gases; anthropogenic emissions; biogenic emissions Asia; emissions inventory; air pollutants; greenhouse gases; anthropogenic emissions; biogenic emissions
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Woo, J.-H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, H.-K.; Choi, K.-C.; Eum, J.-H.; Lee, J.-B.; Lim, J.-H.; Kim, J.; Seong, M. Development of the CREATE Inventory in Support of Integrated Climate and Air Quality Modeling for Asia. Sustainability 2020, 12, 7930.

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