2. Business Models and Additive Manufacturing
A Proposed Framework of the Industry 4.0 Impact on the Additive Manufacturing Business Models
3. Measuring Impacts of Additive Manufacturing on Business Models
3.1. Sustainable Business Models
3.2. Social Impacts of AM
3.3. Environmental Impacts of Additive Manufacturing
3.4. Economic Impacts of Additive Manufacturing
3.5. Strategy and Governance
- Variety of additive manufacturing technologies available that makes it difficult to choose the best ones in some areas.
- Conflicts with traditional and new business models.
- Industry 4.0 dissemination will allow production centered on the manufacturer to become consumer centered production with co-creation, forcing the producer to move from a business to business relationship to a business to consumer with, impacts in all of the the value chain.
- Growth of differentiation and specialized customization focused on special editions of products that may have significant impacts on prices and their regulation.
- The democratization of production can lead to an increasing violation of intellectual property rights, calling into question the value of patents. In some countries, more permissible for this type of infringement, this may jeopardize the viability of business models focused on the exclusivity of some patents.
- The new business models will potentially be complementary to the traditional models, but in some cases, they may cannibalize the traditional.
- The new business models when they are consumer-cantered will have impacts in several areas, especially in the technological development brought by Industry 4.0 and in the innovation that will emerge to support these new business models.
- The simultaneous evolution of technology and new business models, with the interaction of different types of knowledge, should lead to the growth of open innovation.
- The possibility of production or co-creation having several origins (companies or home productors) raises complex issues of security, standardization and traceability of the supply chain, namely in areas such as aerospace, automobile or medicine.
- Furthermore, the aspects of controlling environmental sustainability aspects, such as energy management, waste management, recycling of returned products, etc., raise many questions.
- Decentralized production, allowing the production of parts to be just in time and tailored to the consumer, will lead to a reduction in stocks and a reduction in global footprints. However, this will have an impact on companies producing traditional systems that are usually located on economies that need to base their production on the use of labor intensive.
- Concerns about intellectual property aspects are expected to lead to changes in the licensing of property rights.
- With the growing demand for printers for both industrial and personal use, this market is expected to expand and adapt to new requirements.
- The possibility to explore a possible recycling and use/reuse tools for extended life cycle, since the recycling of some metal powder and use/reuse technologies could be developed to save metal powder .
Conflicts of Interest
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|Leaning and Growth||Process||Market||Financial|
|Economic||The organization is attractive to talents, allowing retaining the best professionals.||The practices consider by the organization minimize the wastes and assures the social and environmental dimensions.||The organization is prepared to meet the market with efficiency in quality, cost, delivery time, and innovation.||If the organization is profitable.|
|Social||The organization manages to retain their talent, the internal environment and employee perception.||The organization’s concern with the employees and, consequently, with society. Internally, it considers also safe and work initiatives.||If the organization generates some social impact and what it’s reaction in an eventual occurrence.||The organization invests in social actions and their benefits generated to the society.|
|Environmental||The society considers the organization as a place to work.||The organization respects the environmental legislation.||If the organization generates some environmental impact and its reaction in an eventual occurrence.||The organization invests in environmental actions and the consequent benefits obtained.|
|Leaning and Growth||Process||Market||Financial|
|Social indicators||Presence of female employees in management positions. Gender pay gap Average monthly basic remuneration of employees Percentage of employees receiving minimum wages Employee work satisfaction|
Access to legal social benefits Percentage of workers educated by the organization regarding additive manufacturing technology. Percentage of qualified workers in the organization
|Percentage of on-fatal occupational accidents incidence. Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Preventive measures and emergency protocols regarding accidents and injuries. Average weekly hours of work by a full-time employee. Presence of child labour in the organization. Organization’s efforts and measures to ensure the protection of consumer privacy. Organization’s efforts and measures to protect consumer health and safety. Organization’s policy and practice regarding the protection of intellectual properties rights. Organizations’ efforts to prevent the manufacturing of armed conflicts weapons using AM||Percentage of spending on locally based suppliers|
Percentage of local suppliers. Percentage of the workforce hired locally. Integration of ethical, social and environmental criterions in purchasing and distribution policy. Payments on time to suppliers. Percentage of consumers negatively affected regarding their health and safety. Percentage of the consumers affected by situations of breach of privacy or loss of data
|Organization’s efforts in promoting additive manufacturing education initiatives in the local community|
|Learning and Growth||Process||Market||Financial|
|Environmental||Affordable additive manufacturing training. Self-awareness of the machine regarding environmental impacts||0 hazardous waste produced 0 kg of landfill waste|
0 kg of water usage per component
|Benefits obtained from being known as an environmentally responsible enterprise. Green products. Customer satisfaction||Benefits obtained from energy efficiency improvements. Waste reduction Level. Recapturing value|
|Learning and Growth||Process||Market||Financial|
|Economic||Increased presence of additive manufacturing in higher education Knowledge sharing||Delay reduction Efficiency of an improved lean supply chain Inventory turn over||The organization able to meet the market with better efficiency higher quality, lower cost and lower delivery time. Market share||Contribution to economic development Cost reduction Profitability|
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