The Reuse of Waste Heaps from Extraction Sites: An Architectural Methodology
Based on These Premises, What Happens to the Huge Accumulations of Waste?
Could Waste Become an Integral Part of Our Architectural Design Philosophy Promoting Reuse Interventions in the Local?
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Waste Concept and Circular Economy
- Direct reuse: The elements are used as close as possible to their original status and for their original purpose, needing almost no preparation.
- Renewed use: The operations of cleaning, renovating, repairing, or remanufacturing lightly alter the materials to serve a new function.
- Rethought reuse: Reclaimed materials are combined with others to produce a secondary good with a new utility .
- The advantages of reusing components can be found in various sectors:
- Design: The creation of new materialism;
- Environment: Reducing waste disposal, gas emissions, and climate change;
- Economy: The local stock of resources leads to an improvement in local employment;
- Resource conservation: Possibility of creating materials from primary resources;
- Social: The birth of a new approach of respect towards the built surroundings.
2.2. Unwanted Material and the Practice of Reuse
3.1. Building with Stone Wastes: Off-Site Reuse Applications in Architectural, Landscape and Art Sector
3.2. Reuse Applications In Situ
Based on This Evidence, What Happens to the Remaining Part of Wastes?
4. Proposed Application Methodology for the Architectural Reuse of the Waste Heaps and Discussion
- The beauty corresponds to the essence of a thing and not to the idea of its form ;
- The rehabilitation process should protect the traces of the industrial activity, as testimonies of the history of the place ;
- The reuse is an indispensable component to comprehend how to reprocess an obsolete matter into something that is put back into cycles of use ;
- The “superuse” is a method that differs from simple “reuse” for the need to propose future scenarios for the rejected material ;
- It is necessary to create different business opportunities “discovering” local and pre-used materials and not to use new and innovative technologies ;
- It is challenging to act in situ, not exporting the waste material;
- One must consider the giant waste heaps as monumental components, integrated into the landscape and interactive with people.
How is it Possible to Advance with this Selection Operation?
- Architecture and landscape: Planning the entire area, from a landscape point of view, to confer general renewed uses to include in the process of rehabilitation.
- Architecture and geology: Combined to evaluate the risk of potential rock movements and instabilities, using a structural and geological characterization of quarries and escombreiras (waste heaps).
- Architecture and civil engineering: Binomial to investigate building construction techniques in mounds of marble waste. It is interesting to achieve the most straightforward and cheapest solution, despite the apparent complexity of the theme.
- Architecture and materials technology: Representing an appropriate combination to examine the integration between the marble remains and new materials and technologies. The purpose is to harmonize a heavy material with others, useful for the creation of new buildings.
- Architecture and economy: It is a necessary dualism to estimate future costs of the construction and conceive an economic comparison among two hypotheses; that of leaving the accumulation of waste and the other one of demolishing them.
Conflicts of Interest
- De Poli, M.; Incerti, G. Atlante dei Paesaggi Riciclati; Skira Editore: Milan, Italy, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Talento, K.; Amado, M.; Kullberg, J.C. Landscape—A Review with a European Perspective. Land 2019, 8, 85. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Talento, K.; Amado, M.; Kullberg, J.C. Quarries: From Abandoned to Renewed Places. Land 2020, 9, 136. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- El-Fadel, M.; Sadek, S.; Chahine, W. Environmental Management of Quarries as Waste Disposal Facilities. Environ. Manag. 2001, 27, 515–531. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Dal Sasso, P.; Ottolino, M.A.; Caliandro, L.P. Identification of Quarries Rehabilitation Scenarios: A Case Study Within the Metropolitan Area of Bari (Italy). Environ. Manag. 2012, 49, 1174–1191. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Baillie, P.W. Auditing a flooded quarry prior to marina development. Environ. Manag. 1992, 16, 531–540. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hebel, D.E.; Wisniewska, M.H.; Heisel, F. Building from Waste: Recovered Materials in Architecture and Construction; Birkhäuser: Basel, Switzerland, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Pongrácz, E.; Pohjola, V.J. Re-defining waste, the concept of ownership and the role of waste management. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2004, 40, 141–153. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- European Commission. Directive 2008/98/EC on Waste (Waste Framework Directive). Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/framework/ (accessed on 5 March 2020).
- Cheyne, I.; Purdue, M. Fitting definition to purpose: The search for a satisfactory definition of waste. J. Environ. Law 1995, 7, 149–168. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Final Guidance Document for Distinguishing Waste from Non-Waste; OECD: Paris, France, 1998; ISSN 1022-2227. Available online: http://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?doclanguage=en&cote=env/epoc/wmp(98)1/rev1 (accessed on 5 March 2020).
- Oxford English Dictionary Online—Waste. Available online: https://krygier.owu.edu/temp/waste_oed.pdf (accessed on 5 March 2020).
- UNEP Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal. J. Environ. Law 1989, 1, 255–277. [CrossRef]
- World Health Organization Expert Committee. Environmental Health Aspects of Metropolitan Planning and Development. 1965. Available online: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/40629 (accessed on 5 March 2020).
- Wilson, D.C.; United Nations Environment Programme; International Solid Waste Association. Global Waste Management Outlook. Available online: https://www.uncclearn.org/sites/default/files/inventory/unep23092015.pdf (accessed on 5 March 2020).
- Gourlay, K.A. World of Waste: Dilemmas of Industrial Development; Zed Books: London, UK, 1992. [Google Scholar]
- Douglas, M. Purity and Danger; Routledge; Kegan Paul: London, UK, 1966. [Google Scholar]
- Steffen, A. Quotefancy. Available online: https://quotefancy.com/quote/1427273/Alex-Steffen-There-is-no-such-thing-as-garbage-just-useful-stuff-in-the-wrong-place (accessed on 5 March 2020).
- Freilla, O. The South Bronx: A Neighbourhood Reclaimed in Actions: What You Can Do with the City; Canadian Centre for Architecture: Montreal, QC, Canada, 2008. [Google Scholar]
- Zero Waste America. What Is Waste? Available online: http://www.zerowasteamerica.org/whatiswaste.htm (accessed on 5 March 2020).
- Bauman, Z. Wasted Lives: Modernity and Its Outcasts; Polity Press: Cambdrige, UK, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- Angélil, M.; Siress, C. Going Around in Circles. In Re-Inventing Construction; Ruby Press: Berlin, Germany, 2010; pp. 248–264. [Google Scholar]
- Wong, M.H. Reclamation of wastes contaminated by copper, lead, and zinc. Environ. Manag. 1986, 10, 707–713. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Baker-Brown, D. The Re-Use Atlas. A Designer’s Guide Towards a Circular Economy; RIBA Publishing: Westminster, UK, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Bryony, R. Tabula Plena. Forms of Urban Preservation; Lars Muller Publishers: Zurich, Switzerland, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Chung, S.S.; Poon, C.S. A Comparison of Waste Reduction Practices and the New Environmental Paradigm in Four Southern Chinese Areas. Environ. Manag. 2000, 26, 195–206. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee Growing a circular economy: Ending the throwaway society. In Third Report of Session 2014–15; The Stationery Office Limited: London, UK, 2014.
- Rhys, J. Cumulative Carbon Emissions and Climate Change; Institute for Energy Studies: Oxford, UK, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Gorgolewski, M. Resource Salvation: The Architecture of Reuse; John Wiley & Sons Ltd.: Oxford, UK, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Till, J.; Schneider, T. Invisible Agency. Archit. Des. 2012, 82, 38–43. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Till, J. How Will Architects be Educated in 20 Years Time? Available online: www.jeremytill.net/read/97/how-will-architects-be-educated-in-20-years-time (accessed on 5 March 2020).
- Hansen, W.; Christopher, M.; Verbuecheln, M. EU Waste Policy and Challenges for Regional and Local Authorities; Ecologic, Institute for International and European Environmental Policy: Berlin, Germany, 2002. [Google Scholar]
- Use It More. Superuse Studios. Available online: https://www.arch2o.com/use-superuse-studios/ (accessed on 5 March 2020).
- Guy, B.; Nicholas, D. Temporal process in research, green building and material reuse. In Proceedings of the Considering Research: Reflecting Upon Current Themes in Architectural Research, Detroit, MI, USA, 24 April 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Lynch, K. Deperire. Rifiuti E Spreco Nella Vita di Uomini E Città; CUEN: Naples, Italy, 1992. [Google Scholar]
- Girling, R. Rubbish! Dirt on Our Hands and Crisis Ahead; Eden Project Books: London, UK, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Lynch, K. Wasting Away; Sierra Club Books: San Francisco, CA, USA, 1990. [Google Scholar]
- Eurostat Statistics Explained. Waste Statistics. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Waste_statistics (accessed on 5 March 2020).
- Waste Atlas 2013 Report. Available online: https://www.iswa.org/fileadmin/galleries/News/WASTE_ATLAS_2013_REPORT.pdf (accessed on 5 March 2020).
- Cohen, D. Earth’s Natural Wealth: An Audit. Available online: https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19426051-200-earths-natural-wealth-an-audit/?ignored=irrelevant (accessed on 5 March 2020).
- Mitchell, J. Turning Waste into Building Blocks of the Future City. Available online: https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20130524-creating-our-cities-from-waste (accessed on 5 March 2020).
- Rogers, H. Gone Tomorrow: The Hidden Life of Garbage; The New Press: New York, NY, USA; London, UK, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Acocella, A. Architettura Dei Gabbioni. Costruire 2007, 293, 52–53. [Google Scholar]
- Mortensrud Church. Jensen & Skodvin Architects. Available online: https://www.archdaily.com/1929/mortensrud-church-jsa (accessed on 5 March 2020).
- Frearson, A. Apartment No. 1 by AbCT. Available online: https://www.dezeen.com/2013/05/10/apartment-no-1-by-abct/ (accessed on 5 March 2020).
- Howarth, D. David Chipperfield’s Valentino flagship store opens in New York. Dezeen. 11 September 2014. Available online: https://www.dezeen.com/2014/09/11/david-chipperfield-valentino-flagship-store-fifth-avenue-new-york/ (accessed on 5 March 2020).
- Knight, E. A Reflection on Belzec. The National Holocaust Centre and Museum. Available online: https://www.holocaust.org.uk/blog/belzec (accessed on 5 March 2020).
- ArchDaily. Piedra Tosca Park/RCR Arquitectes. Available online: https://www.archdaily.com/806228/piedra-tosca-park-rcr-arquitectes (accessed on 5 March 2020).
- Smithson, R. A Sedimentation the Mind: Earth Projects. In Robert Smithson: The Collected Writings; University of California Press: Berkeley, CA, USA, 1996; pp. 110–111. [Google Scholar]
- Smithson, R. A Provisional Theory of Non-sites. In Robert Smithson: The Collected Writings; University of California Press: Berkeley, CA, USA, 1968; p. 364. [Google Scholar]
- Alloway, L. Sites/Nonsites. In Robert Smithson: Sculpture; Smithmark Pub: Ithaca, NY, USA, 1983; pp. 42–43. [Google Scholar]
- Hutton, J. Reciprocal Landscapes: Stories of Material Movements; Routledge: Philadelphia, PA, USA, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Deepankar, K.A. Feasibility of waste marble powder in concrete as partial substitution of cement and sand amalgam for sustainable growth. J. Build. Eng. 2018, 15, 236–242. [Google Scholar]
- Ulubeyli, G.C.; Artir, R. Properties of Hardened Concrete Produced by Waste Marble. Procedia Soc. Behav. Sci. 2015, 195, 2181–2190. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Simão, J.; Freire, A.C.; Farto, H. Caracterização de Rejeitados de Escombreiras de Pedreiras de Rocha Ornamental Para Aplicação em Camadas Não Ligadas de Pavimentos Rodoviários; Duraspace: Lisbon, Portugal, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Silva, C.F.; Esteves, L.D. The Mounds of Estremoz Marble Waste: Between refuse and reuse. In Waste 2015—Solutions, Treatments and Opportunities; CRC press: London, UK, 2015; pp. 305–310. [Google Scholar]
- Gallent, N.; Mace, A.; Tewdwr-Jones, M. Mainland Europe and Britain Compared Introduction. In Second Homes; Routledge: London, UK, 2017; pp. 127–143. [Google Scholar]
- Holden, R. New Landscape Design; Architectural Press: Oxford, UK, 2003. [Google Scholar]
- Chmielewska, M.; Otto, M. Revitalisation of spoil tips and socio-economic polarisation—A case study of Ruhr area (Germany). Environ. Socio Econ. Stud. 2014, 2, 45–56. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Talento, K.; Amado, M.; Kullberg, J.C. Eco-friendly reuse of marble wastes in landscape and architecture. Sustain. City XIII WIT Trans. Ecol. Environ. 2019, 238, 665–677. [Google Scholar]
- Talento, K.; Miguel, A.; Kullberg, J.C. The metamorphosis of the landscape: The adaptive reuse of marble waste. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Architecture and Built Environment with AWARDs S.ARCH 2018 CONFERENCE PROCEEDING, Erlangen, Germany, 22 May 2018. [Google Scholar]
|(European Commission, 2008)||Waste shall mean any substance or object, which the holder discards or is required to discard.|
|OECD, 1998 ||Wastes are materials other than radioactive materials intended for disposal.|
|(Oxford English Dictionary Online, n.d.) ||Refuse matter; unserviceable material remaining over from any process of manufacture; the useless by-products of any industrial process; material or manufactured articles so damaged as to be useless or unsaleable.|
|UNEP, 1989 ||Wastes are substances or objects, which are disposed of, are intended to be disposed of, or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of national law.|
|World Health Organization Expert Committee, 1965 ||Something, which the owner no longer wants at a given time and space and which has no current or perceived market value.|
|Wilson et al., 2015 ||Unwanted or discarded materials, rejected as useless, unneeded, or surplus to requirements.|
|Gourlay, 1992 ||What we do not want or what we fail to use.|
|Douglas, 1966 ||Matter out of place.|
|Steffen, n.d. ||There is no such thing as garbage, just useful stuff in the wrong place.|
|Freilla, 2008 ||Waste is what you call something when you have no idea what to do with it. The fact that waste exists anywhere is more a testament to our lack of imagination. If you have a purpose for it, it is no longer waste.|
|Zero Waste America, n.d. ||A waste is a resource that is not safely recycled back into the environment or the marketplace.|
|Class||Discussion||Case of Study||Type of Waste||Use|
|Detachment||It presupposes the insertion of small ephemeral structures in proximity to waste piles, not interfering with them. There are respect and a valorization of the pre-existence by contemplating it.||Blaenau Ffestiniog, North Wales.||Slate.||Touristic.|
|Equality||It consists in treating the accumulation of scraps as the other components of the landscape. The waste accumulation represents not an isolated factor to monumentalizing but a territorial component able to interact with people.||Weldon Spring Centre, St. Charles County, Missouri.||Nuclear.||Recreational, touristic.|
|Binomial monumentality-human interaction||It includes both monumentality and the interaction components, exalting the waste accumulation as a prominent installation, opening it at people visits.||Dionyssos quarries, Greece.||Marble.||Touristic.|
|Naturalistic||Mimesis with the landscape. The waste heap is treated as an integral part of the landscape and not as an extraneous object to contemplate. This criterion allows the introduction of recreational and cultural structures only if they appear “hidden” in the waste accumulation.||Slag heap Haniel, Germany.||Coal.||Recreational, touristic.|
|Architectonic||It completely exalts the meaning of the pile of remains giving it the function of “shell.” The waste pile can contain buildings and renewed spaces.||Temppeliaukio Church, Helsinki.||Mix of solid blocks and granite wastes.||Religious.|
|Size of the waste heap|
|Presence of vegetation cover above the mounds of waste|
|Stability of the waste accumulation|
|Proximity to main streets/roads|
|Proximity to touristic attractions|
|Visual impact degree|
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Talento, K.; Amado, M.; Kullberg, J.C. The Reuse of Waste Heaps from Extraction Sites: An Architectural Methodology. Sustainability 2020, 12, 6548. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166548
Talento K, Amado M, Kullberg JC. The Reuse of Waste Heaps from Extraction Sites: An Architectural Methodology. Sustainability. 2020; 12(16):6548. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166548Chicago/Turabian Style
Talento, Katia, Miguel Amado, and José Carlos Kullberg. 2020. "The Reuse of Waste Heaps from Extraction Sites: An Architectural Methodology" Sustainability 12, no. 16: 6548. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166548