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Article

Application of Natural Carbon Isotopes for Emission Source Apportionment of Carbonaceous Particulate Matter in Urban Atmosphere: A Case Study from Krakow, Southern Poland

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Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
2
Faculty of Energy and Fuels, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
3
Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry in Jena, Hans-Knöll Str. 10, 07745 Jena, Germany
4
Department of Coronary Disease and Heart Failure, Jagiellonian University Medical College, John Paul II Hospital, ul. Prądnicka 80, 31-202 Kraków, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5777; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145777
Received: 15 June 2020 / Revised: 14 July 2020 / Accepted: 14 July 2020 / Published: 17 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies in Air Treatment)
Successful mitigation of air pollution in large cities requires information about the structure of emission sources and their contribution to total atmospheric load. The presented research demonstrates a possibility of application of isotope tracers for the estimation of contribution of different sources to the carbonaceous fraction of PM2.5 (Particulate Matter containing fraction below 2.5 μm) collected in the urban atmosphere of Krakow, Poland during the summer and winter seasons. Isotope mass balance approach was used to perform source apportionment analysis for those two seasons. The analysis showed that the dominant source of the carbonaceous fraction of PM2.5 in Krakow is coal burning during the winter season and biogenic emissions during the summer season. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the uncertainty of the percentage contribution of different sources to the overall carbon load of the analyzed PM2.5 fraction is in order of a few percent. View Full-Text
Keywords: particulate matter; natural carbon isotopes; air quality; emission sources particulate matter; natural carbon isotopes; air quality; emission sources
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zimnoch, M.; Samek, L.; Furman, L.; Styszko, K.; Skiba, A.; Gorczyca, Z.; Galkowski, M.; Rozanski, K.; Konduracka, E. Application of Natural Carbon Isotopes for Emission Source Apportionment of Carbonaceous Particulate Matter in Urban Atmosphere: A Case Study from Krakow, Southern Poland. Sustainability 2020, 12, 5777. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145777

AMA Style

Zimnoch M, Samek L, Furman L, Styszko K, Skiba A, Gorczyca Z, Galkowski M, Rozanski K, Konduracka E. Application of Natural Carbon Isotopes for Emission Source Apportionment of Carbonaceous Particulate Matter in Urban Atmosphere: A Case Study from Krakow, Southern Poland. Sustainability. 2020; 12(14):5777. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145777

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zimnoch, Miroslaw, Lucyna Samek, Leszek Furman, Katarzyna Styszko, Alicja Skiba, Zbigniew Gorczyca, Michal Galkowski, Kazimierz Rozanski, and Ewa Konduracka. 2020. "Application of Natural Carbon Isotopes for Emission Source Apportionment of Carbonaceous Particulate Matter in Urban Atmosphere: A Case Study from Krakow, Southern Poland" Sustainability 12, no. 14: 5777. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145777

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