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Sustainable European Transport System in a 100% Renewable Economy

1
Institute of Marine Sciences, Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Ps. Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Spain
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Centre de Recerca Ecològica i Aplicacions Forestals (CREAF), Campus UAB, Edifici C, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 5091; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125091
Received: 26 May 2020 / Revised: 15 June 2020 / Accepted: 17 June 2020 / Published: 23 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Transportation)
Europe must move towards a 100% renewable transportation system for climate, energy and sustainability reasons. We estimate the capital and energy required for building and operating a renewable transportation system providing similar services as the EU-28 transport system of 2016. It could be based on: biogas or fuel cell vessels; liquid biogas powered aircrafts; electric railways and fuel cell or electric vehicles between major cities; and car sharing, electric buses and electric two- and three-wheelers, for short journeys. A system of charging posts on the streets and roads for passenger and commercial e-vehicles is studied. Alternatively, a Tracked Electric Vehicle system of continuous power on European roads would improve energy efficiency and the saving of scarce metals (Ni, Li), at a lower cost, if only national roads were electrified. The investment for the construction of the whole system would be 2.3–2.7% of the EU’s GDP per year for 30 years. The new system operation would require 16% less energy than that of 2016, with reduction of 70% in road transport. However, shipping and aviation would demand 162% and 149% more energy, respectively, if liquefied biogas were used as fuel. A type of land transport fully based on trains would provide a similar service to that of an electric vehicle fleet, with a 29% lower energy consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: transport infrastructure; transition cost; electrification; embodied energy; decarbonisation; rail transport transport infrastructure; transition cost; electrification; embodied energy; decarbonisation; rail transport
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MDPI and ACS Style

García-Olivares, A.; Solé, J.; Samsó, R.; Ballabrera-Poy, J. Sustainable European Transport System in a 100% Renewable Economy. Sustainability 2020, 12, 5091. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125091

AMA Style

García-Olivares A, Solé J, Samsó R, Ballabrera-Poy J. Sustainable European Transport System in a 100% Renewable Economy. Sustainability. 2020; 12(12):5091. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125091

Chicago/Turabian Style

García-Olivares, Antonio, Jordi Solé, Roger Samsó, and Joaquim Ballabrera-Poy. 2020. "Sustainable European Transport System in a 100% Renewable Economy" Sustainability 12, no. 12: 5091. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125091

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