Next Article in Journal
Spray Drift Generated in Vineyard during Under-Row Weed Control and Suckering: Evaluation of Direct and Indirect Drift-Reducing Techniques
Next Article in Special Issue
Indicators for Post-Disaster Search and Rescue Efficiency Developed Using Progressive Death Tolls
Previous Article in Journal
Best Practices for Fitness Center Business Sustainability: A Qualitative Vision
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Why Italy First? Health, Geographical and Planning Aspects of the COVID-19 Outbreak

1
School of Engineering, University of Basilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano, 10, 85100 Potenza, Italy
2
Department of Economics, Business, Mathematics and Statistics “Bruno de Finetti”, University of Trieste, Via Tigor 22, 34124 Trieste, Italy
3
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture, University of Cagliari, Via Marengo 2, 09123 Cagliari, Italy
4
Department of Medical, Surgical and Experimental Sciences, University of Sassari, Viale San Pietro, 07100 Sassari, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 5064; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125064
Received: 3 May 2020 / Revised: 15 June 2020 / Accepted: 16 June 2020 / Published: 22 June 2020
COVID-19 hit Italy in February 2020 after its outbreak in China at the beginning of January. Why was Italy first among the Western countries? What are the conditions that made Italy more vulnerable and the first target of this disease? What characteristics and diffusion patterns could be highlighted and hypothesized from its outbreak to the end of March 2020, after containment measures, including a national lockdown, were introduced? In this paper, we try to provide some answers to these questions, analyzing the issue from medical, geographical and planning points of view. With reference to the Italian case, we observed the phenomenon in terms of the spatial diffusion process and by observing the relation between the epidemic and various environmental elements. In particular, we started from a hypothesis of the comparable economic, geographical, climatic and environmental conditions of the areas of Wuhan (in the Hubei Province in China, where the epidemic broke out) and the Po Valley area (in Italy) where most cases and deaths were registered. Via an ecological approach, we compared the spatial distribution and pattern of COVID-19-related mortality in Italy with several geographical, environmental and socio-economic variables at a Provincial level, analyzing them by means of spatial analytical techniques such as LISA (Local Indicators of Spatial Association). Possible evidence arose relating to COVID-19 cases and Nitrogen-related pollutants and land take, particularly in the Po Valley area. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; Italy; Po-Valley; NOx; pollution; particles; land take; spatial diffusion processes; LISA COVID-19; Italy; Po-Valley; NOx; pollution; particles; land take; spatial diffusion processes; LISA
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Murgante, B.; Borruso, G.; Balletto, G.; Castiglia, P.; Dettori, M. Why Italy First? Health, Geographical and Planning Aspects of the COVID-19 Outbreak. Sustainability 2020, 12, 5064. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125064

AMA Style

Murgante B, Borruso G, Balletto G, Castiglia P, Dettori M. Why Italy First? Health, Geographical and Planning Aspects of the COVID-19 Outbreak. Sustainability. 2020; 12(12):5064. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125064

Chicago/Turabian Style

Murgante, Beniamino; Borruso, Giuseppe; Balletto, Ginevra; Castiglia, Paolo; Dettori, Marco. 2020. "Why Italy First? Health, Geographical and Planning Aspects of the COVID-19 Outbreak" Sustainability 12, no. 12: 5064. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125064

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop