2. Conceptual Background
2.1. An Ecosystem Perspective on the Circular Economy
2.2. Circular Strategies
2.3. Research Gaps and Goal of This Study
3.1. Literature and Practice Review to Derive Principles
3.2. Tool Development and Evaluation
- An incumbent firm from the health technology sector (nine participants) who worked on refurbishing and servitizing one of their products;
- Twelve ‘circular startups’ that were part of the ‘Investment Ready Programme’ 2018 of the Impact Hub in Amsterdam, Netherlands, an organization that promotes impact entrepreneurship (15 participants). One startup worked on, for example, providing solid home cleaning products under a subscription;
- A mobility design agency based in Amsterdam working on a new shared mobility solution for a client (six participants);
- A group of entrepreneurs and firm managers from the province of Noord Holland. The workshop was conducted at Impact Hub in Amsterdam (21 participants). One example from the group included a startup that makes euro pellets from otherwise wasted coconut fibers;
- A large engineering service company in the Dutch construction sector (five participants) that wanted to explore how they can offer more circular oriented services in their portfolio;
- A group of entrepreneurs (21 participants) in Lund, Sweden, as part of an international coaching program to develop their circular business models. One group worked on, for instance, how to turn the textile sector circular;
- A group of entrepreneurs, innovation managers and researchers. The workshop was conducted at Impact Hub in Hamburg, Germany (15 participants). One group worked on, for instance, how to make plastic packaging in the fast moving consumer goods sector circular;
- A group of entrepreneurs and innovation managers who joined a workshop as part of a conference in Riga, Latvia (18 participants). One group worked on, for example, establishing a local marketplace for wasted building materials;
- A design agency based in Helsinki, Finland (6 participants) that wanted to explore how they can integrate circularity into their service design offerings;
- A group of entrepreneurs, innovation managers, designers and researchers from the Helsinki region, Finland (5 participants). One challenge that the group addressed related to a systemic textile project to make Finland’s textile industry circular;
- A group of entrepreneurs, innovation managers and researchers from the Helsinki region, Finland (10 participants). One challenge that a group addressed was how to provide circular operating services for buildings;
- A group of entrepreneurs, innovation managers and researchers from the Lappeenranta region, Finland (10 participants). One group included a chairman and an environmental manager from a big welding company that wanted to explore the circularity of their operations and business model.
4.1. The Circularity Deck
4.2. How to Use the Circularity Deck
- Present the circular economy framework and the five circular strategies (Figure 2). Use an image similar to Figure 5 to give examples of the principles for each strategy in a particular context. Show Figure 1 to explain that there are product, business model and ecosystem principles for each strategy. It is also important to explain how the cards relate to each other. First, some cards are similar to each other. This may be because a principle applies to more than one strategy. For example, the ‘slowing’ principle for products—‘design for easy dis- and reassembly’—can also be found as a separate ‘closing’ principle for products as ‘design for easy disassembly at the end of the product’s life’. Both cards exist, because design for disassembly to enable easy repair may be different from design for easy disassembly to ensure higher recyclability. Both are important to take into account during circular product design. Another example refers to the two ‘slowing’ principles for business models: ‘provide the product as a service’ and ‘organize maintenance and repair services’. The former relates to the value proposition and the latter to the value creation and delivery of the circular business model. In addition, cards may relate to each other in all kinds of ways. An example is the ‘informing’ principle for products: ‘design connected products’. This principle may be needed to support the ‘narrowing’ principle ‘enable and incentivize users to consume less’. Another example is the ‘narrowing’ principle for products: ‘design light-weight products’, which may support the ‘slowing’ principle ‘provide the product as a service’. In general, analyzing and developing circular innovation ecosystems implies that participants identify the relationships among the cards: to realize when one principle enables another one; and how many cards together can enable circularity to emerge as a systemic property in a given innovation ecosystem.
- Let the participants define a clear problem or challenge that they want to work on during the session. This can be a specific business context or industry, an existing business model or future circular oriented goals that an organization or several organizations want to work towards.
- Hand out prints (at least A4) of the circular economy framework (Figure 1) and let people brainstorm for about five minutes how they currently use these strategies to address their problem or challenge. This step is to analyze the current status quo. The output can be captured on post-its.
- Ask the participants to spend five minutes to think about how they can apply the circular strategies in their context. This step makes sure that people can first generate more open ideas about how they could apply the strategies and prevent that they are influenced by the content of the Circularity Deck. During this step, participants are asked to write on post-its and map them around the circular economy framework.
- Hand out the Circularity Deck so that the participants can get to know the cards. It might be helpful to pre-select some cards to reduce the overall number of cards that the participants have to go through and to increase the relevance of the cards for a particular context. Not all cards are, for example, relevant to the textile sector.
- Once they have a basic understanding of the cards, ask participants to analyze if and how the principles can be implemented in their context. The cards can then be put on the table around the framework where each stack of cards belongs. Participants can browse through them and map them around the circular economy framework, similar to how the cards and post-its are mapped around the framework in Figure 5. This exercise results in a circular economy framework that is surrounded by selected cards and post-its. This can then serve to generate and discuss ideas and necessary actions that can lead to higher degrees of circularity.
4.3. Evaluation and Iterations of the Circularity Deck
Conflicts of Interest
|Search Focus||Search Strings (Limited to the Business, Management, Accounting and Engineering Journals in the Scopus Database)||Number of Search Results (April 2019)||Number of Retrieved Articles and References (Each Additional Row Mentions Only New Articles That Were Not yet Found from Previous Search Strings)|
|Circular economy in general||“Circular economy” AND strategies OR principles||345||10 articles [7,8,9,14,68,117,119,124,142,157]|
|Circular product design||“Circular economy” AND “product design”||125||Three articles [3,160,171]|
|Circular business model innovation||“Circular economy” AND “business model design” OR “business model innovation”||23||Two articles [122,125]|
|Circular ecosystem innovation||“Circular economy” AND system* AND strategy*||183||One article |
|Narrow||reduce AND sustainability AND strategies (only titles to increase relevance)||13||0|
|Slow||“product-life extension” AND strategies||11||Two articles [172,173]|
|Slow||Servitization AND “circular economy” AND strategies||3||0|
|Close||recycling AND strategies OR principles||135||0|
|Regenerate||“circular economy” AND regenerate AND strategies OR principles||11||0|
|Regenerate||“circular economy” AND “renewable energy” AND strategies OR principles||72||0|
|Inform||“circular economy” AND platforms OR “internet of things” OR “artificial intelligence” OR “big data”||58||Five articles [62,158,159,162,174]|
|Workshop 1: Big health technology company|
Number of participants: 8
Average rating of perceived usefulness (Answer options: Likert scale (1 = do not agree at all, 5 = fully agree)): 4.14
Average rating of ease of use (Answer options: Likert scale (1 = do not agree at all, 5 = fully agree)): 4.13
Rating of 3:
|Workshop 2: Twelve circular startups during the ‘Investment Ready Programme’ of Impact Hub|
Number of participants: 11
Average rating of perceived usefulness: 4.55
Average rating of ease of use: 4.55
Rating of 4:
|Workshop 3: Mobility design agency|
Number of participants: 6
Average rating of perceived usefulness: 4.5
Average rating of ease of use: 4.83
Rating of 3:
|Workshop 4: Open workshop with 21 participants from different firms of the ‘Provincie Noord Holland’ at Impact Hub in Amsterdam|
Number of participants: 21
Average rating of perceived usefulness: 4.52
Average rating of ease of use: 4.29
Rating of 3:
|Workshop 5: Workshop with a big civil engineering service company|
Number of participants: 5
Average rating of perceived usefulness: 4
Average rating of ease of use: 3.6
Rating of 2:
|Workshop 6: Open workshop with 21 participants in Sweden as part of an international coaching program to develop their circular business models|
Number of participants: 21
Average rating of perceived usefulness: 4.79
Average rating of ease of use: 4.24
Rating of 3:
Rating of 4:
Rating of 5:
|Workshop 7: Open workshop with a group of entrepreneurs, innovation managers and researchers from the Hamburg region|
Number of participants: 15
Average rating of perceived usefulness: 4.69
Average rating of ease of use: 4.4
Rating of 3:
|Workshop 8: Open workshop with a group of entrepreneurs and innovation managers from Riga, Latvia|
Number of participants: 18
Average rating of perceived usefulness: 4.67
Average rating of ease of use: 4.61
Rating of 3:
|Workshop 9: Workshop with a design agency from Helsinki, Finland|
Number of participants: 6
Average rating of perceived usefulness: 4.5
Average rating of ease of use: 4.83
Rating of 4:
|Workshop 10: Workshop with a group of entrepreneurs, innovation managers and researchers from the Helsinki region, Finland|
Number of participants: 5
Average rating of perceived usefulness: 4.4
Average rating of ease of use: 4.2
Rating of 3:
|Workshop 11: Workshop with a group of entrepreneurs, innovation managers and researchers from the Helsinki region, Finland|
Number of participants: 10
Average rating of perceived usefulness: 4.8
Average rating of ease of use: 4.7
Rating of 3:
|Workshop 12: Workshop with a group of innovation managers and researchers from the Lappeenranta region, Finland|
Number of participants: 10
Average rating of perceived usefulness: 4.7
Average rating of ease of use: 4.7
Rating of 3:
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|Circular Strategy||Circular Principle and the Required Innovation Perspective: Product (p), Business Model (bm) or Ecosystem (e)||Description and Example||Ref.|
|Narrow||Design with low-impact inputs (p)||Design products with ‘ingredients’ and materials that require less land, energy, water and/or materials to produce. The company Impossible Foods has designed a ‘meaty’ plant-based burger. Compared to the beef version, it requires ca. 7 m2 less land, 300 L less water and 5 kg less CO2 than the meat-based alternative.||[46,66]|
|Narrow||Design light-weight products (p)||Design products that are lighter than comparable products on the market. Lighter products usually require less materials and need less energy to transport. Adaptive City Mobility has designed a car that weighs 650 kg incl. battery. This is around 1/3 of an average car (in 2019), leading to ca. 50% less battery to operate.||[68,72,114,115]|
|Narrow||Design for multiple functions (p)||Design products with multiple functions. Multi-functional products can reduce the overall number of products and may be usable by different user groups. Studio Davero has designed Puzzle Peace: a modular furniture kit that can be turned into multiple types of furniture; e.g., a bench, table, armchair, chair, bar or display.||[115,116]|
|Narrow||Eliminate production waste (bm)||Eliminate any type of waste from production processes, for example material scraps, food left-overs or excess heat and electricity. The company Winnow helps professional kitchens to reduce food waste and save cost through a bin with a scale, Artifial intelligence enabled image recognition software and training based on gathered waste data.||[68,72,117,118]|
|Narrow||Enable and incentivize users to consume less (bm)||Incentivize users to use less energy or material during the use of energy or material-using goods like washing machines or cars. The firm HOMIE offers washing machines through a pay-per-wash model. By monitoring user behavior, the company increases the resource efficiency of doing laundry.||[72,118,119]|
|Narrow||Organize light-weight urban transport (bm)||Organize lighter forms of transportation, for example using electric tricycles. The lighter the vehicles, the lower the amount of energy and materials required to transport people and goods. The firm RYTLE provides a cargo solution that consists of a light-weight vehicle, an easily exchangeable box, storage hubs and software that connects all entities.|||
|Narrow||Localize supply where appropriate (bm)||Find more local suppliers, where appropriate. More local suppliers decrease the amount of energy needed to transport goods. The restaurant chain ‘Dig Inn’ has developed a supply system of local farmers in every region it operates in to provide a scalable, locally adapted and seasonal restaurant model, reducing travel distances for food ingredients and stimulating the regional economy.||[10,115,121]|
|Narrow||Maximize capacity use of products (e)||Maximize the degree to which the capacity of a product is used. This is sometimes referred to as ‘sharing’, where multiple user groups have access to the same product. This can decrease the overall number of products in an ecosystem. The online platform Peerby enables people to share everyday goods like drills or bicycles, which can increase their usage and reduce the overall number of personally owned goods in homes over time.||[4,68,69,122]|
|Slow||Design for physical durability (p)||Design products that degrade more slowly than comparable products on the market. A cast-iron pan can last much longer than comparable pan types.||[3,6,9,14,71,72]|
|Slow||Design for emotional durability (p)||Design products that users will love and trust over a long period of time. The ‘Leatherman’, a pocket-knife sized toolkit, has a 25 year warranty and many uses. It lets people collect and experience personal stories and creates an emotional bond between the user and the product.||[3,9]|
|Slow||Design for ease of maintenance and repair (p)||Design products that can be easily maintained or repaired. Maintaining means inspecting the product to retain its functional capabilities. Repairing is about restoring a product to a sound/good condition after decay or damage. Fairphone has designed a modular phone that can be easily disassembled to repair and exchange components.||[3,6,14,58,68,72]|
|Slow||Design for easy dis - and reassembly (p)||Design products that can be easily separated and reassembled. Gerrard Street has designed a pair of headphones that can be easily separated and reassembled.||[3,123]|
|Slow||Design for upgradability (p)||A product is upgradable if its functionality or performance can be improved during or after use. An example is a bicycle with exchangeable and upgradable components.||[3,6,72,124,125]|
|Slow||Design for standardization and compatibility (p)||Create products, components or interfaces that also fit other products, components or interfaces. A common example of a standardized component is the Mini-USB slot for charging.|||
|Slow||Enable users to maintain and repair their products (bm)||Create services that enable users to care for their product. Fairphone supports users to care for their phones through discussion forums on how to maintain and repair, and an inventory of spare parts.||[25,126]|
|Slow||Remanufacture existing products and components (bm)||Recover value from collected end-of-use products by reusing their components for the manufacturing of products with the same functionality. The Chinese company Guangzhou Huadu collects used vehicle parts and remanufactures them into as-new certified spare parts.||[9,118,125,127]|
|Slow||Repurpose existing products and components (bm)||Take existing products and components and take them out of their context to create new value with them. Ubitricity turns lamp lanterns in cities into charging stations for electric vehicles.||[128,129]|
|Slow||Provide an unconditional lifetime warranty (bm)||Offer your customers a life-time warranty, adding a promise to products that are made to last. The company Darn Tough Vermont produces socks with an unconditional lifetime guarantee. They say: “If our socks are not the most comfortable, durable and best fitting socks you have ever owned, return them for another pair.”|||
|Slow||Encourage sufficiency (bm)||Encourage your customers to moderate the consumption of your products. In 2011, the clothing company Patagonia advocated: “Don’t buy this jacket.” With Worn Wear, it opened an online store for used Patagonia clothing, encouraging users to maintain their gear and trade it back once they don’t use it anymore.||[21,68]|
|Slow||Provide the product as a service (bm)||Offering the product as a service keeps the ownership with the firm and creates incentives to increase their lifetimes. You can offer product-, use-, or results-oriented models. The company Kaer offers a result: cool and fresh air as a service, rather than air conditioners as products.||[3,9,69,74,75,76,77,78,122]|
|Slow||Organize maintenance and repair services (bm)||Make sure that your products can last longer through maintenance and repair services. They can be offered by the manufacturer of a product or by third-party providers. The company Nudie Jeans, at its point of sale, has started to offer a free repair service for their Jeans. This has changed the shop appearance into a craftsmanship atmosphere.||[122,124,131]|
|Slow||Upgrade and adapt existing products (bm)||A product is upgradable if its functionality or performance can be improved during or after use. Try and integrate upgrading services into your offering. Gispen offers REMADE, a service to repurpose old furniture to fit new trends and workspace requirements.||[122,124,128,129,132]|
|Slow||Turn disposables into a reusable service (e)||Make use of or provide services that replace disposable with durable products. TerraCycle has designed ‘Loop’, which delivers products like shampoo or ice cream in reusable packaging. The packaging gets picked up, cleaned and used again. Involved actors include retail brands, service providers (e.g., cleaning and transport service) and end users.||[80,82]|
|Close||Design with recycled inputs (p)||Design with materials that have been recycled from other products and components. The ‘Design for Recycled Content Guide’ supports firms in opting for more recycled content in their products.||[133,134,135,136]|
|Close||Design components, where appropriate, with one material (p)||Composite materials are often hard to recycle because they cannot be separated. Design components, therefore, where appropriate, with only one material to increase recyclability. Adidas has launched Futurecraft.Loop, a shoe made from one recyclable material and no glue. It can be recycled into pellets that can be turned into a new shoe.||[69,72,137]|
|Close||Design with materials suitable for primary recycling (p)||Try and design for primary recycling, that is: recycling that can turn materials into materials with equivalent properties. Aquafil has designed the Econyl system, which enables Polyamide 6 or Nylon 6 waste to be manufactured into new Nylon 6, with no loss of quality.||[68,83]|
|Close||Design for easy disassembly at the end of the product lives (p)||Easy disassembly allows product components to be more easily recycled. Magnomer uses magnetizable ink on packaging labels to allow for easier separation during the recycling process.||[3,138,139]|
|Close||Reuse and sell components and materials from discarded products (bm)||Create new value from wasted products and components. Roetz recovers bicycle components that were thrown away and uses them to let customers assemble their own bikes.|||
|Close||Enable and incentivize product returns (bm)||Make sure that you can get the products back that you put on the market. The clothing company Teemill makes users send back old and worn out products. Users can scan a QR code in the wash-care label to generate a free post label, which can be used to send the garment back to Teemill. Sending back products earns users credit for their next purchase.||[25,84,122]|
|Close||Recycle products in proper facilities (bm)||Make sure that the products you put on the market get recycled in proper facilities. The initiative ‘Closing the Loop’ supports users and sellers of phones to be material-neutral and waste free. It collects scrap phones on behalf of customers and recycles them.|||
|Close||Build local waste-to-product loops (e)||Create local resource loops by turning the waste of a given facility into new products that can be sold back to the facility. The firm SOOP has designed an ecosystem that collects waste (coffee grounds and orange peels) from offices, processes it, and re-delivers products to the offices that are made from to the waste.||[69,85,86]|
|Close||Engage in industrial symbiosis (e)||Share or exchange by-products, materials, energy, or waste among nearby firms. The Kalundborg Eco-industrial park is an example where firms collaborate to share by-products from their factories.||[3,7,69,142]|
|Regenerate||Design with renewable materials (p)||Design products with renewable and low-carbon materials. Timber wood, for example, can replace non-renewable building materials. Renewable materials should only be chosen when its extraction rate is equal to or lower than its recovery rate. Further, next to its properties, materials need to be selected based on their expected end-of-life treatment to avoid unintended consequences.||[3,5,69,143]|
|Regenerate||Design self-charging products (p)||Design products that can charge themselves with renewable energy. This is especially relevant for mobility assets. The company Sono Motors has designed a car with solar cells integrated into its body, allowing it to charge itself throughout the day.|||
|Regenerate||Design with living materials (p)||Living materials leverages the properties of natural materials. Ecovative, for example, produces mycelium-based fibers and materials with natural glue properties. Used for packaging, apparel and in the medical industries.|||
|Regenerate||Design with non-toxic materials (p)||Avoid using toxic materials and substances in any of your products or operations. Toxic substances tend to accumulate in the biosphere and cause negative health effects for humans and other species. Vestaron substitutes synthetic pesticides with biological ones that are safe for humans, birds, fish and pollinators.||[58,72,87,89,90,146]|
|Regenerate||Produce and process with renewable energy (bm)||Build up your capacity as a company to produce and process with renewable energy. In 2019, Apple has been the company with the biggest installed capacity for solar energy, 400 MW.|||
|Regenerate||Power transportation with renewable energy (bm)||Find ways to power your transportation needs with renewable energy. The company Foodlogica links local food, consumers and businesses in Amsterdam’s city center through a light-weight mobility system, powered by renewable energy.|||
|Regenerate||Power the use of the product with renewable energy (bm)||Find ways of powering your product with renewable energy, through creative partnerships or product and service design. Waka Waka provides portable devices with photovoltaic panels that can power every-day electronics.|||
|Regenerate||Embed renewable energy production in the existing infrastructure (e)||Find ways of making renewable energy production part of the existing infrastructure. ‘Solar Roadways’ has developed a modular system of solar panels that can be walked and driven upon.|||
|Regenerate||Recover nutrients from urban areas (e)||Find ways of recovering valuable nutrients from urban areas that are usually lost. Lystec Inc. helps the city of Guelph to turn biosolids from wasterwater treatment into organic nutrients for surrounding agriculture.||[46,92]|
|Regenerate||Regenerate polluted ecosystems (e)||Contribute to regenerating polluted ecosystems that affect your business. The Ocean Cleanup Project develops technology to clean oceans from plastic pollution.|||
|Regenerate||Manage and sustain critical ecosystem services (e)||Engage in projects that manage and sustain the natural ecosystems that surround and/or affect your business operations. Nestle’s Häagen-Dazs has partnered with the nonprofit Xerces Society to plant the largest pollinator habitat in the United States. Without pollination services from bees, many critical ingredients for the ice-cream would not exist anymore.||[151,152]|
|Inform||Use artificial intelligence to develop new materials with circular properties (p)||Developing a new material requires data about the structure and properties of materials. AI can help analyze the required and available data quickly to inform design decisions based on circular requirements. The ‘Accelerated Metallurgy project’, run by the European Space Agency, has used AI to produce and test new metal alloys. AI enabled the project to speed up the process of finding new materials.||[63,153]|
|Inform||Virtualize (p)||Deliver utility virtually. Virtualizing reduces the need for materials to deliver the same utility. reMarkable has designed a digital device that “feels like paper”. A tool for note-taking, reading and reviewing documents.||[4,154]|
|Inform||Design connected products (p)||Design products with sensors that can send and receive different types of data. Delta Development, as part of its ‘product-as-a-service’ model, has sensors in some of their elevators to inform maintenance needs.||[62,155,156,157,158,159]|
|Inform||Use product-in-use data for circular design (bm)||Data on how a product is used can be valuable to make better design decisions for future products and services. Rolls-Royce aggregates product-in-use data to make their engines more efficient, durable and long-lasting.||[57,60,62,158]|
|Inform||Track the resource intensity of the product-in-use (bm)||Tracking the resource use of products while they are used can, for example, help to influence user behavior to decrease the resource intensity of product use. Philips uses sensors to track data on how their lights are used within their lighting-as-a-service model to save electricity.|||
|Inform||Track the condition, location, and/or availability of the product (bm)||Tracking the condition of the products can help to predict when it will be necessary to service (e.g., repair, maintain) them. Tracking the location and availability can, for example, enable the maximizing of their use capacity. Zipcar uses the data to optimize their car sharing service.||[57,160]|
|Inform||Market circular products, components and materials through online platforms (e)||Online platforms can serve to market circular products, components and materials. Stuffstr buys and collects used products from consumers and sells them in secondhand markets. An AI algorithm helps Stuffstr to set competitive prices for the seller, while offering Stuffstr a good margin on the secondhand market.||[57,63]|
|Inform||Build material database ecosystems (e)||Create or leverage material databases. They describe the characteristics of materials and components in products so that products can be more easily reused and their materials recovered. The project ‘Buildings as Material Banks’ has brought together different stakeholders to develop a material database ecosystem for buildings.||[161,162]|
|Inform||Co-create products, components, materials and information via online platforms (e)||Online platforms can be used to ‘crowdsource’ design projects for circular products, components and materials. The online platform launchforth.io connects designers and engineers with firms to co-create new products.||[57,163]|
|Inform||Use artificial intelligence to optimize circular infrastructure (e)||The circular economy requires the collecting, sorting, separating, treating, and redistributing of products, components and materials. Often, products, components and materials are diverse and difficult to handle. Artificial intelligence can help to optimize the infrastructure required for a circular economy. ZenRobotics uses robots with cameras and sensors to automatically sort all kinds of waste streams with an accuracy level of 98%.||[63,158,164]|
|Inform||Operate service ecosystems via online platforms (e)||Online platforms can serve to operate service ecosystems that require several actors who need to coordinate their interactions and economic exchange. The online platform Whim operates mobility-as-a-service ecosystems in cities combining different private and public transportation options for a seamless mobility experience.||[57,62,63,165]|
|1||Clarify principles, add examples||Rewrote principles for more clarity, researched and added examples for each principle|
|2||Get rid of overlapping principles||Revisited principles for more differentiation|
|3||Principles and examples may be limiting, lacking connections between the cards, pose principles as questions, improve quality of the cards||Added 10 min of brainstorm without the cards, better explanations on the relationships of the cards, better quality prints for cards|
|4||Address viability of the principles, conceptual overlap among cards||Revisited principles to better differentiate them, improved guidance on how to use the cards|
|5||Translate cards into Dutch||-|
|6||Address overlapping cards, clarify relationships between cards||Provide better explanations for the conceptual similarity between cards in the guidance, explain possible relationships in the guidance|
|7||Add new card on design with renewable materials, make a pre-selection of cards, give clear instructions, add a ‘playing board’ to the cards, make the ecosystem perspective clearer, change card design, add cards that explain the strategies||Added new card on ‘design with renewable materials’, added the possibility to preselect cards to the instructions, added instructions on how to allocate the cards around the framework to better explain the ecosystem perspective, changed the card deck design (added a colored top layer) to make it easier to grasp|
|10/11||Include a ‘get-to-know the card deck’ phase before starting the ideation, give more time for the session||Added a step to the instructions to ensure that the participants have enough time to understand the card deck, changed the proposed time for a workshop from two to three hours.|
|12||Define a clear problem or challenge at the beginning of the session||Added a step to the instructions that lets participants define a clear problem or challenges that they want to work on during the workshop|
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