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The Evolution of Agricultural Drainage from the Earliest Times to the Present

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Center of Excellence for Climate Change Research/Department of Meteorology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Department of History and Classical Studies, School of Culture and Society, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
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Faculty of Engineering, School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
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College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, SKUAST-Kashmir, Srinagar 190025, India
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Department of Water History Research, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Research Center on Flood and Drought Disaster Reduction of the Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing 100038, China
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Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, 95124 Catania, Italy
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School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281, USA
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Departments of LAWR and Biological & Agricultural Engineering, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
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Institute of Crete, National Foundation for Agricultural Research (N.AG.RE.F.), 71307 Iraklion and Hellenic Union of Municipal Enterprises for water Supply and Sewerage, 41222 Larissa, Greece
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010416
Received: 29 November 2019 / Revised: 11 December 2019 / Accepted: 19 December 2019 / Published: 5 January 2020
Agricultural developments require changes in land surface and subsurface hydraulic functions as protection from floods, reclamation of flooded land, irrigation, and drainage. Drainage of agricultural land has a long history and apparently traces back to the earliest civilizations of Mesopotamia and Iran before 4000 BC. In the Eastern Mediterranean, the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations developed techniques and strategies of drainage of agricultural lands from the middle of the 2nd millennium BC. After the collapse of the Aegean Bronze-age civilizations, society building and agricultural innovation in the archaic and Classical periods (ca. 800–300 BC) included successful attempts at controlling drainage and irrigation techniques. In addition, China, India, and Mesoamerica have extensive histories of drainage. The aim of this review paper is to trace the evolution of the main foundings on agricultural drainage technologies through the centuries until the present. This historical review reveals valuable insights into ancient hydraulic technologies as well as irrigation and drainage management that will help to find bright horizons for sustainable agriculture in future. View Full-Text
Keywords: agricultural drainage; irrigation; land reclamation; water and civilization; sustainable drainage agricultural drainage; irrigation; land reclamation; water and civilization; sustainable drainage
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MDPI and ACS Style

Valipour, M.; Krasilnikof, J.; Yannopoulos, S.; Kumar, R.; Deng, J.; Roccaro, P.; Mays, L.; Grismer, M.E.; Angelakis, A.N. The Evolution of Agricultural Drainage from the Earliest Times to the Present. Sustainability 2020, 12, 416. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010416

AMA Style

Valipour M, Krasilnikof J, Yannopoulos S, Kumar R, Deng J, Roccaro P, Mays L, Grismer ME, Angelakis AN. The Evolution of Agricultural Drainage from the Earliest Times to the Present. Sustainability. 2020; 12(1):416. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010416

Chicago/Turabian Style

Valipour, Mohammad; Krasilnikof, Jens; Yannopoulos, Stavros; Kumar, Rohitashw; Deng, Jun; Roccaro, Paolo; Mays, Larry; Grismer, Mark E.; Angelakis, Andreas N. 2020. "The Evolution of Agricultural Drainage from the Earliest Times to the Present" Sustainability 12, no. 1: 416. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010416

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