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Northern Warning Lights: Ambiguities of Environmental Security in Finland and Sweden
Open AccessArticle

A Lot of Talk, But Little Action—The Blind Spots of Nordic Environmental Security Policy

Global Security Programme, Finnish Institute of International Affairs, 00101 Helsinki, Finland
BIOS Research Unit, 00170 Helsinki, Finland
Ecosystems and Environment Research Programme & Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science (HELSUS), Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(8), 2379;
Received: 10 March 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
Despite an increasing recognition that environmental change may have implications for security, there only are few policies to address the issue. This article will look at environmental security policies in Finland and Sweden and propose ways to develop more effective measures. It relies on a three-level framework that aims to enable the identification of environmental security impacts by categorising them into local, geopolitical and structural ones. The article will examine present environmental security strategies and policies in Finland and Sweden, consider their efficacy for addressing various kinds of impacts and point out approaches that are currently missing. Based on the discussion, it argues that a comprehensive policy approach is needed to tackle environmental security impacts. This requires closer coordination and interchange between sectors as well as strategic intent. In addition, further research is needed on the structural impacts of mitigating and adapting to environmental change. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental security; environmental policy; societal transformation; resilience environmental security; environmental policy; societal transformation; resilience
MDPI and ACS Style

Hakala, E.; Lähde, V.; Majava, A.; Toivanen, T.; Vadén, T.; Järvensivu, P.; Eronen, J.T. A Lot of Talk, But Little Action—The Blind Spots of Nordic Environmental Security Policy. Sustainability 2019, 11, 2379.

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