Next Article in Journal
Effects of Physico-Chemical Parameters on Actinomycetes Communities during Composting of Agricultural Waste
Next Article in Special Issue
A Lot of Talk, But Little Action—The Blind Spots of Nordic Environmental Security Policy
Previous Article in Journal
Analyzing Spatial Congruencies and Mismatches between Supply, Demand and Flow of Ecosystem Services and Sustainable Development
Previous Article in Special Issue
Can There be Water Scarcity with Abundance of Water? Analyzing Water Stress during a Severe Drought in Finland
Open AccessArticle

Northern Warning Lights: Ambiguities of Environmental Security in Finland and Sweden

Global Security Programme, Finnish Institute of International Affairs, 00101 Helsinki, Finland
BIOS Research Unit, 00170 Helsinki, Finland
Ecosystems and Environment Research Programme & Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science (HELSUS), Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(8), 2228;
Received: 10 March 2019 / Revised: 30 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 13 April 2019
As the literature on environmental security has evolved and widened, knowledge of the full range of potential consequences of environmental change for different societies remains scattered. This article contributes to a more comprehensive approach to the implications of environmental change by providing a three-level framework of the security impacts. In particular, it will address gaps in knowledge by pointing out the relevance of geopolitical and structural factors behind environmental security impacts. The article will focus on the cases of two countries, Finland and Sweden—both seen as stable, high-income democracies that are well equipped to adapt to climate risks. Yet even under these conditions, preparedness to threat-prevention will not follow without a recognition of the full range of risks, including ones that are linked to socio-economic and geopolitical factors. On the basis of the Finnish and Swedish cases, the article proposes an analytical framework of three categories of environmental security impacts: local, geopolitical and structural. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental security; security impacts; societal transformation; resilience environmental security; security impacts; societal transformation; resilience
MDPI and ACS Style

Hakala, E.; Lähde, V.; Majava, A.; Toivanen, T.; Vadén, T.; Järvensivu, P.; Eronen, J.T. Northern Warning Lights: Ambiguities of Environmental Security in Finland and Sweden. Sustainability 2019, 11, 2228.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop