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Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 1847; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11071847

Cross-Scale Water and Land Impacts of Local Climate and Energy Policy—A Local Swedish Analysis of Selected SDG Interactions

1
Division of Energy Systems Analysis, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 10044 Stockholm, Sweden
2
Department of Physical Geography and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
3
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
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Abstract

This paper analyses how local energy and climate actions can affect the use of water and land resources locally, nationally and globally. Each of these resource systems is linked to different Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs); we also explore related SDG interactions. A municipality in Sweden with the ambition of phasing out fossil fuels by year 2030 is used as illustrative case example. The local energy system is modelled in detail and indirect water and land requirements are quantified for three stylised decarbonisation scenarios of pathways to meeting climate and energy requirements (related to SDG13 and SDG7, respectively). Total local, national and global implications are addressed for the use of water and land resources, which relate to SDG6 for water, and SDG2 and SDG15 for land use. We find that the magnitude and location of water and land impacts are largely pathway-dependent. Some scenarios of low carbon energy may impede progress on SDG15, while others may compromise SDG6. Data for the studied resource uses are incoherently reported and have important gaps. As a consequence, the study results are indicative and subject to uncertainty. Still, they highlight the need to recognise that resource use changes targeting one SDG in one locality have local and non-local impacts that may compromise progress other SDGs locally and/or elsewhere in the world. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate-land-water-energy nexus; cross-scale SDG interactions; local climate policy; decarbonisation pathways climate-land-water-energy nexus; cross-scale SDG interactions; local climate policy; decarbonisation pathways
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Engström, R.E.; Destouni, G.; Howells, M.; Ramaswamy, V.; Rogner, H.; Bazilian, M. Cross-Scale Water and Land Impacts of Local Climate and Energy Policy—A Local Swedish Analysis of Selected SDG Interactions. Sustainability 2019, 11, 1847.

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