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Nonproliferation and Security Implications of the Evolving Civil Nuclear Export Market

1
Managing the Atom Project & International Security Program, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, 79 John F. Kennedy Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
2
Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 1830; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11071830
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
In recent decades, the nuclear export market has observed a marked shift of demand from traditional customers in the Western world to Asia. The lack of projects in the United States, the delay in the French construction of advanced reactors, and the Fukushima accident in Japan have also led to the declining export capabilities of their companies. In contrast, Russia has gained numerous contracts, and China will likely become another major exporter. In this paper, the evolution of the market was examined from both the supply and demand sides with issues including the more concentrated and uncertain market, the lack of full participation by emerging suppliers to the nonproliferation regime, and the lesser governance capabilities of the newcomers. Addressing these issues, a range of policy suggestions was made, including the reinforcement of market shares of Western suppliers, the encouragement of newcomers to adhere to international norms, and a better safeguards contribution scheme. View Full-Text
Keywords: nuclear energy; nuclear nonproliferation; nuclear security; export control; nuclear safeguards nuclear energy; nuclear nonproliferation; nuclear security; export control; nuclear safeguards
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Nguyen, V.P.; Yim, M.-S. Nonproliferation and Security Implications of the Evolving Civil Nuclear Export Market. Sustainability 2019, 11, 1830.

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