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What Determines the Psychological Well-Being during Commute in Xi’an: The Role of Built Environment, Travel Attitude, and Travel Characteristics

School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
Lingnan (University) College, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1328;
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychology of Sustainability and Sustainable Development)
PDF [3735 KB, uploaded 4 March 2019]


The commute well-being (CWB) has been associated with the mental health and depends on the positive or negative emotions that occur during the daily commute. This paper analyzes the influencing factors and discusses the structural relationship between CWB and influencing factors, based on our evaluation of the results for daily CWB between different travel modes. We based our analyses on a CWB survey conducted in the central city proper of Xi’an. In contrast to previous studies, this paper investigates two commuting phases, in the morning and evening, to better analyze daily CWB. To conduct a more comprehensive analysis, in addition to considering multi-stage combined travel, the subjective and objective aspects of factors influencing CWB were deepened and expanded. The measurement was based on the Satisfaction with Travel Scale, which was developed based on a method for measuring subjective well-being. The average CWB level of each model was compared by analyzing the variances. The influencing factors were determined by stepwise regression, and the influence mechanism was analyzed using a structural equation model (SEM). The results indicate that CWB in Xi’an was highest for walking, which was followed, in order, by motorcycle, electric bicycle, staff shuttle bus, bicycle, metro, car, taxi, and bus. The result reflects that commuting by bus is associated with more negative emotions in Xi’an. The results of SEM indicate that the built environment does not directly affect CWB, but it will act on CWB by affecting other factors. The travel attitude, commute mode choice, and other travel characteristics affect each other and affect CWB directly and indirectly. Other travel characteristics has the largest total effect on CWB, and the travel attitudes have the largest direct effect. Without considering the travel attitude, reducing traffic congestion, commuting time, and transfer times can significantly improve CWB and reduce negative emotions in the future in Xi’an. View Full-Text
Keywords: commute well-being; built environment; travel attitude; travel characteristic; Xi’an commute well-being; built environment; travel attitude; travel characteristic; Xi’an

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Wei, D.; Cao, X.; Wang, M. What Determines the Psychological Well-Being during Commute in Xi’an: The Role of Built Environment, Travel Attitude, and Travel Characteristics. Sustainability 2019, 11, 1328.

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