- freely available
Sustainability 2019, 11(4), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11040973
2. Literature Review
2.1. Eco-Label and Environmental Awareness
2.2. Eco-Label as A Product Attribute
2.3. Environmental Awareness and Green Purchase
3. Research Framework and Hypotheses
4. Research Methods
4.2. Survey Procedure and Response Rate
5.1. Reliability and Validity
5.2. Path Analysis
6. Results and Discussion
7. Conclusions, Implication, and Limitation
Conflicts of Interest
- Eco-friendly designed product looks appealing.
- Eco-friendly designed product looks stylish.
- Eco-friendly product is of good quality.
- If possible, I would like to buy products with recycling label.
- Marketers must advertise the environmental aspects of their products.
- Government must make eco-labeling mandatory.
- When humans interfere with nature it often produces disastrous consequences.
- The balance of nature is very delicate and easily upset.
- We are approaching the limit of the number of people the Earth can support.
- I try to buy energy-efficient household appliances.
- I try to buy products that can be recycled.
- To save energy, I drive my vehicle as little as possible.
- I make a special effort to buy paper and plastic products that are made from recycled materials.
- I have switched products for ecological reasons.
- When I have a choice between two equal products, I purchase the one less harmful to other people and the environment.
- I make a special effort to buy household chemicals such as detergents and cleaning solutions that are environmentally friendly.
- I have avoided buying a product because it had potentially harmful environmental effects.
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|Product Attributes||a characteristic that defines a particular product and will affect a consumer’s purchase decision.||Eco-friendly designed product looks appealing.|
Eco-friendly designed product looks stylish.
Eco-friendly product is of good quality.
|Praxmarer, 2011 and|
Chen et al., 2015
|Eco-Label||a voluntary method of environmental performance certification and labelling that is practiced around the world.||If possible, I would like to buy products with recycling label|
Marketers must advertise the environmental aspects of their products.
Government must make eco-labeling mandatory.
|Environmental Attitudes||a psychological tendency expressed by evaluating the natural environment with some degree of favour or disfavour.||When humans interfere with nature it often produces disastrous consequences.|
The balance of nature is very delicate and easily upset.
We are approaching the limit of the number of people the Earth can support.
|Environmental Concern||a consumer’s beliefs about society’s role in considering and protecting the environmentally concerned behavior.||I try to buy energy-efficient household appliances.|
I try to buy products that can be recycled.
To save energy, I drive my vehicle as little as possible.
|Straughan and Roberts, 1999|
|Green Purchase||a procurement of products and services that have a lesser or reduced effect on human health and the environment when compared with competing products or services that serve the same purpose.||I make a special effort to buy paper and plastic products that are made from recycled materials.|
I have switched products for ecological reasons.
When I have a choice between two equal products, I purchase the one less harmful to other people and the environment.
I make a special effort to buy household chemicals such as detergents and cleansing solutions that are environmentally friendly.
I have avoided buying a product because it had potentially harmful environmental effects.
|Kim and Choi. 2005|
|Construct||Cronback’s Alpha||Variable||Standardized Factor Loading||C.R.|
|Environmental Concern (EC)||0.866||0.687||0.616||0.380||0.829|
|Eco-label (EL)||0.742||0.490||0.486||0.367||0.697 ***||0.700|
|Product Attributes (PA)||0.870||0.693||0.263||0.219||0.393 ***||0.477 ***||0.833|
|Environmental Attitude (EA)||0.807||0.582||0.355||0.292||0.512 ***||0.538 ***||0.513 ***||0.763|
|Green Purchase (GP)||0.904||0.653||0.616||0.417||0.785 ***||0.682 ***||0.482 ***||0.59 ***||0.808|
|Absolute fit indices||Chi-square||368.609|
|GFI||0.90 or above||0.942|
|AGFI||0.90 or above||0.919|
|SRMR||0.08 or below||0.028|
|Incremental fit indices||NFI||0.90 or above||0.948|
|IFI||0.90 or above||0.963|
|TLI||0.90 or above||0.954|
|CFI||0.90 or above||0.962|
|Hypothesis||Path||Standardized Coefficient||Standard Error||C.R. (t-Value)||Result|
|H1||Eco-Label—> Environmental Attitude||0.372 ***||0.071||6.802||Accepted|
|H2||Eco-Label—> Environmental Concern||0.590 ***||0.053||9.470||Accepted|
|H3||Eco-Label—> Green Purchase||0.199 ***||0.050||3.778||Accepted|
|H4||Eco-Label—> Product Attributes||0.487 ***||0.057||9.578||Accepted|
|H5||Product Attributes—> Environmental Attitude||0.340 ***||0.058||6.806||Accepted|
|H6||Product Attributes—> Environmental Concern||0.017||0.034||0.373||Rejected|
|H7||Environmental Attitude—> Environmental Concern||0.186 ***||0.033||3.647||Accepted|
|H8||Environmental Attitude—> Green Purchase||0.223 ***||0.029||5.710||Accepted|
|H9||Environmental Concern—> Green Purchase||0.532 ***||0.059||10.069||Accepted|
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