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Review

Climate Change Impact, Adaptation, and Mitigation in Temperate Grazing Systems: A Review

1
Centre for Sustainable Agricultural Systems, Institute for Life Science and the Environment, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, QLD 4350, Australia
2
Climate Change Institute, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
3
Basque Centre for Climate Change (BC3), Edificio Sede Nº 1, Planta 1, Parque Científicode UPV/EHU, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Spain
4
CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Floreat, WA 6014, Australia
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CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
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Centre for Compassionate Conservation, Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia
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Department of Animal and Rangeland Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(24), 7224; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11247224
Received: 26 November 2019 / Revised: 10 December 2019 / Accepted: 10 December 2019 / Published: 16 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Resilient Sustainable Agricultural Production Systems)
Managed temperate grasslands occupy 25% of the world, which is 70% of global agricultural land. These lands are an important source of food for the global population. This review paper examines the impacts of climate change on managed temperate grasslands and grassland-based livestock and effectiveness of adaptation and mitigation options and their interactions. The paper clarifies that moderately elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) enhances photosynthesis, however it may be restiricted by variations in rainfall and temperature, shifts in plant’s growing seasons, and nutrient availability. Different responses of plant functional types and their photosynthetic pathways to the combined effects of climatic change may result in compositional changes in plant communities, while more research is required to clarify the specific responses. We have also considered how other interacting factors, such as a progressive nitrogen limitation (PNL) of soils under eCO2, may affect interactions of the animal and the environment and the associated production. In addition to observed and modelled declines in grasslands productivity, changes in forage quality are expected. The health and productivity of grassland-based livestock are expected to decline through direct and indirect effects from climate change. Livestock enterprises are also significant cause of increased global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (about 14.5%), so climate risk-management is partly to develop and apply effective mitigation measures. Overall, our finding indicates complex impact that will vary by region, with more negative than positive impacts. This means that both wins and losses for grassland managers can be expected in different circumstances, thus the analysis of climate change impact required with potential adaptations and mitigation strategies to be developed at local and regional levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: grassland; livestock; climate change; adaptation; mitigation; grazing system; ecosystem health; food security grassland; livestock; climate change; adaptation; mitigation; grazing system; ecosystem health; food security
MDPI and ACS Style

Ghahramani, A.; Howden, S.M.; del Prado, A.; Thomas, D.T.; Moore, A.D.; Ji, B.; Ates, S. Climate Change Impact, Adaptation, and Mitigation in Temperate Grazing Systems: A Review. Sustainability 2019, 11, 7224. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11247224

AMA Style

Ghahramani A, Howden SM, del Prado A, Thomas DT, Moore AD, Ji B, Ates S. Climate Change Impact, Adaptation, and Mitigation in Temperate Grazing Systems: A Review. Sustainability. 2019; 11(24):7224. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11247224

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ghahramani, Afshin, S. M. Howden, Agustin del Prado, Dean T. Thomas, Andrew D. Moore, Boyu Ji, and Serkan Ates. 2019. "Climate Change Impact, Adaptation, and Mitigation in Temperate Grazing Systems: A Review" Sustainability 11, no. 24: 7224. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11247224

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