Use of Life Cycle Cost Analysis and Multiple Criteria Decision Aid Tools for Designing Road Vertical Profiles
- In 2016, there were 113 million cars and 133 million light trucks;
- In 2016, light vehicles accounted for 90% of the 3.2 trillion driven vehicle miles;
- In 2016, there were 11,499,000 heavy trucks;
- In 2016, heavy trucks and buses accounted for 10% of the 3.2 trillion driven vehicle miles;
- In 2017, transportation petroleum use was 70% of total petroleum use;
- In 2017, petroleum comprised 92% of transportation energy use;
- In 2016, cars and light trucks accounted for 63% of transportation petroleum use;
- In 2016, medium trucks accounted for 4% of transportation petroleum use;
- In 2016, heavy trucks and buses accounted for 19% of transportation petroleum use;
- In 2017, transportation energy use accounted for about 29% of total energy use;
- In 2016, cars and light trucks accounted for 59% of transportation energy use;
- In 2016, medium trucks accounted for 5% of transportation energy use;
- In 2016, heavy trucks and buses accounted for 19% of transportation energy use.
2.1. Life Cycle Cost Analysis
2.2. Multiple Criteria Decision Aid
2.3. Rakha–Pasumarthy–Adjerid (RPA) Car-Following Model
2.3.1. First Order Steady-State Car-Following Model
2.3.2. Collision Avoidance Model
2.3.3. Vehicle Dynamics Model
2.4. Virginia Tech Comprehensive Power-Based Fuel Consumption Model (VT-CPFM)
3. Proposed Evaluation Procedure
4. Case Study: Description, Results, and Discussion
4.1. LCCA Results
4.2. MCDA Tool Results
- The least cost alternative with the lowest required earthwork may not be the “optimal” design.
- As compared to a leveled road (0% grade), the rate of car and truck fuel consumption and CO2 emissions is much higher when going uphill than when going downhill. Therefore, the idea that excess fuel consumed uphill is compensated by lesser fuel consumed downhill is inaccurate.
- Currently, vertical profiles of roads are the role of a geometric designer who is an expert on surveying and geometric road properties. This study recommends that transportation engineers consider a project from all perspectives (planning, design, management, etc.) and understand concepts related to traffic engineering and management.
- A design software could be developed to help the analysis described in this paper. The input to such a software is the associated costs for all alternatives (excavation, filling, transportation, materials, extra lane construction, etc.) as well as the measures of performances predicted for each alternative. The software output would be the LCCA indicators and/or the ranking of the different alternatives using any MCDA tool. Different types of uncertainties could be added to the software analysis tool.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Average annual daily traffic||2000|
|Percentage of trucks||15%|
|Proportions of daily traffic occurring during the peak hour||15%|
|Free flow speed||120 km/h|
|Speed at capacity||90 km/h|
|Jam density||160 veh./km/lane|
|Saturation flow rate||1800 veh./h/lane|
|Earthwork cost Alt. 1 (M$)||4|
|Earthwork cost Alt. 2 (M$)||60|
|Earthwork cost Alt. 3 (M$)||44|
|Earthwork cost Alt. 4 (M$)||88|
|Earthwork cost Alt. 5 (M$)||120|
|Value of travel time ($/(veh. × h), cars||30|
|Value of travel time ($/(veh. × h), trucks||56|
|Value of fuel ($/L)||0.75–4|
|Value of CO2 emissions ($/t)||3, 50, 100, 200, 300, 900|
|Cost (M$)||Fuel per Year (kL)||CO2 per Year (t)||Time per Year (kveh. × h)|
|Indifference threshold (q)||4||600||1600||3.6|
|Preference threshold (p)||10||1600||4000||9.6|
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Loulizi, A.; Bichiou, Y.; Rakha, H. Use of Life Cycle Cost Analysis and Multiple Criteria Decision Aid Tools for Designing Road Vertical Profiles. Sustainability 2019, 11, 7127. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11247127
Loulizi A, Bichiou Y, Rakha H. Use of Life Cycle Cost Analysis and Multiple Criteria Decision Aid Tools for Designing Road Vertical Profiles. Sustainability. 2019; 11(24):7127. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11247127Chicago/Turabian Style
Loulizi, Amara, Youssef Bichiou, and Hesham Rakha. 2019. "Use of Life Cycle Cost Analysis and Multiple Criteria Decision Aid Tools for Designing Road Vertical Profiles" Sustainability 11, no. 24: 7127. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11247127