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Open AccessArticle

The Adoption of Environmental Management Systems Based on ISO 14001, EMAS, and Alternative Models for SMEs: A Qualitative Empirical Study

1
Department of Applied Economics I, Faculty of Economics and Business, The University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48940 Bilbao, Spain
2
Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, The University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48940 Bilbao, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(24), 7015; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11247015
Received: 28 October 2019 / Revised: 2 December 2019 / Accepted: 5 December 2019 / Published: 9 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability)
The adoption of environmental management systems (EMSs) based on standards such as ISO 14001 and EMAS (Eco-Management and Audit Scheme) has become very popular and the academic literature has studied the adoption of these standards extensively. However, the variety of ways in which EMSs are adopted and internalized has not been fully analyzed and the few studies that have analyzed this issue have focused on the analysis of the outcomes of just one of the main reference standards for EMSs, namely, ISO 14001. Considering this shortcoming in the literature, this work contributes to the empirical literature on the analysis of the adoption of standards for EMS by analyzing the case of the three main reference models used by organizations: ISO 14001, EMAS, and the alternative models for EMSs. The present work summarizes conclusions of interest for the different stakeholders involved in the adoption of EMSs. Implications for scholars and other stakeholders are discussed. It is recommended that further studies should focus on the analysis of the real effects of the adoption of the main standards for EMSs. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental management systems; ISO 14001; EMAS; Ekoscan environmental management systems; ISO 14001; EMAS; Ekoscan
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Díaz de Junguitu, A.; Allur, E. The Adoption of Environmental Management Systems Based on ISO 14001, EMAS, and Alternative Models for SMEs: A Qualitative Empirical Study. Sustainability 2019, 11, 7015.

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