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Article

Life Cycle Assessment for Bioethanol Production from Oil Palm Frond Juice in an Oil Palm Based Biorefinery

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Department of Food and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Malaysia
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School of Bioprocess Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Perlis 02600, Malaysia
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Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Malaysia
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Laboratory of Biopolymer and Derivatives, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Malaysia
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Universiti Kuala Lumpur Branch Campus Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering Technology (UniKL MICET), Lot 1988, Kawasan Perindustrian, Bandar Vendor, Alor Gajah 78000, Malaysia
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Department of Biological Functions and Engineering, Graduate School of Life Science and System Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka 808-0916, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(24), 6928; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11246928
Received: 24 September 2019 / Revised: 5 October 2019 / Accepted: 21 October 2019 / Published: 5 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems)
A study was conducted to estimate the possible environmental impacts arising from the generation of bioethanol from oil palm frond sugar juice in a theoretical oil palm based biorefinery model. A life cycle assessment (LCA) with the gate-to-gate approach was performed with the aid of SimaPro version 8.0 whereby ten impact categories were evaluated. The scope included frond collection and transportation, frond sugar juice extraction, and bioethanol fermentation and purification. Evaluation on the processes involved indicated that fermentation contributed to the environmental problems the most, with a contribution range of 52% to 97% for all the impact categories. This was due to a substantial usage of nutrient during this process, which consumes high energy for its production thus contributing a significant burden to the surrounding. Nevertheless, the present system offers a great option for biofuel generation as it utilizes sugar juice from the readily available oil palm waste. Not only solving the issue of land utilization for feedstock cultivation, the enzymatic saccharification step, which commonly necessary for lignocellulosic sugar recovery could also be eliminated. View Full-Text
Keywords: life cycle assessment; oil palm frond; oil palm frond juice; bioethanol life cycle assessment; oil palm frond; oil palm frond juice; bioethanol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mohd YUSOF, S.J.H.; Roslan, A.M.; Ibrahim, K.N.; Syed ABDULLAH, S.S.; Zakaria, M.R.; Hassan, M.A.; Shirai, Y. Life Cycle Assessment for Bioethanol Production from Oil Palm Frond Juice in an Oil Palm Based Biorefinery. Sustainability 2019, 11, 6928. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11246928

AMA Style

Mohd YUSOF SJH, Roslan AM, Ibrahim KN, Syed ABDULLAH SS, Zakaria MR, Hassan MA, Shirai Y. Life Cycle Assessment for Bioethanol Production from Oil Palm Frond Juice in an Oil Palm Based Biorefinery. Sustainability. 2019; 11(24):6928. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11246928

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mohd YUSOF, Siti J.H., Ahmad M. Roslan, Khairul N. Ibrahim, Sharifah S. Syed ABDULLAH, Mohd R. Zakaria, Mohd A. Hassan, and Yoshihito Shirai. 2019. "Life Cycle Assessment for Bioethanol Production from Oil Palm Frond Juice in an Oil Palm Based Biorefinery" Sustainability 11, no. 24: 6928. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11246928

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