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Are Higher Input Levels to Triticale Growing Technologies Effective in Biofuel Production System?

Department of Agrotechnology, Agricultural Production Management and Agribusiness, Faculty of Environmental Development and Agriculture, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Vytautas Magnus University, K. Donelaičio str. 58, 44248 Kaunas, Lithuania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(21), 5915;
Received: 2 September 2019 / Revised: 21 October 2019 / Accepted: 22 October 2019 / Published: 24 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
Energy use in agricultural production has been increasing faster than in many other sectors of the world economy. Owing to high energy consumption during the production of agricultural inputs, with mineral nitrogen fertilizers in particular, it is often questioned as to whether agricultural production is still energy efficient. The objective of this research was to evaluate the energy efficiency of different intensity systems for the production of semi-dwarf winter triticale cultivar ”Twingo”. Cultivar “Twingo” entered the Polish National List in 2012 as one of the best yielding. For this reason, it was used in this experiment to examine its response to basic agrotechnical factors. The field experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Experiment Station in Tomaszkowo in 2013–2015. Low-input, medium-input and high-input production systems were evaluated. The compared systems differed in nitrogen fertilization rates and the level of fungicide protection. The highest output/input ratio was noticed growing winter triticale in low-input production system. The most energy-consuming operation during winter triticale production in the compared systems was mineral fertilization. The high-input production system was significantly lower energy efficiency than the other systems (6.21, medium-input 5.95, low-input 8.19). The energy return on investment (EROI) ratio was low, but above 1, in all the analyzed technologies (low-input 1.30, medium-input 1.14, high-input 1.15). The energy value of the bioethanol produced was higher than the energy inputs into the production of raw material and its processing. The conversion of winter triticale grain to bioethanol proved that the EROI reached the most favorable value for the low-input production system. View Full-Text
Keywords: triticale; energy effectiveness; production technology; bioethanol triticale; energy effectiveness; production technology; bioethanol
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Bielski, S.; Romaneckas, K.; Novikova, A.; Šarauskis, E. Are Higher Input Levels to Triticale Growing Technologies Effective in Biofuel Production System? Sustainability 2019, 11, 5915.

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