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Open AccessArticle

Performance Analysis of a Polling-Based Access Control Combining with the Sleeping Schema in V2I VANETs for Smart Cities

1
School of Information Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China
2
Information Technology Development Center of Yunnan Province, Kunming 650091, China
3
Dipartimento di Informatica (DI), Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 18, 20133 Milano (MI), Italy
4
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi P.O. Box 127788, UAE
5
Department of Embedded Systems Engineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 22012, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(2), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11020503
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 16 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract

In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), one of the important challenges is the lack of precise mathematical modeling taking into account the passive vacation triggered by the zero-arrival state of nodes. Therefore, a polling-based access control is proposed in this paper using a sleeping schema to meet the challenge of quality of service (QoS) and energy-efficient transport in VANET environments for smart cities. Based on IEEE 802.11p, it was developed in an attempt to improve the energy efficiency of the hybrid coordination function of controlled channel access (HCCA) through a self-managing sleeping mechanism for both the roadside unit (RSU) and on-board units (OBUs) or sensor nodes according to the traffic load in vehicle -to-infrastructure (V2I) scenarios. Additionally, a Markov chain was developed for analyzing the proposed mechanism, and the exact mathematical model is provided with regard to the passive vacation. Then, the performance characteristics—including the mean cyclic period, delay, and queue length—were accurately obtained. In addition, the closed-form expression of the quantitative relationship among sleeping time, performance characteristics, and service parameters was obtained, which can easily evaluate the energy efficiency. It was proven that theoretical calculations were completely consistent with simulation results. The simulation results demonstrate that the suggested method had much lower energy consumption than the standard strategy at the expense of rarely access delay. View Full-Text
Keywords: smart cities; ICTS; energy efficiency; polling control; probability generating function; vehicular Ad-hoc networks (VANETs); vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) smart cities; ICTS; energy efficiency; polling control; probability generating function; vehicular Ad-hoc networks (VANETs); vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I)
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He, M.; Guan, Z.; Bao, L.; Zhou, Z.; Anisetti, M.; Damiani, E.; Jeon, G. Performance Analysis of a Polling-Based Access Control Combining with the Sleeping Schema in V2I VANETs for Smart Cities. Sustainability 2019, 11, 503.

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