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The Carbon Footprint of Energy Consumption in Pastoral and Barn Dairy Farming Systems: A Case Study from Canterbury, New Zealand

1
Department of Land Management and Systems, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, New Zealand
2
Alderbrook Farm Ltd., Rakaia 7783, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(17), 4809; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11174809
Received: 12 July 2019 / Revised: 27 August 2019 / Accepted: 28 August 2019 / Published: 3 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture)
Dairy farming is constantly evolving to more intensive systems of management, which involve more consumption of energy inputs. The consumption of these energy inputs in dairy farming contributes to climate change both with on-farm emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels, and by off-farm emissions due to production of farm inputs (such as fertilizer, feed supplements). The main purpose of this research study was to evaluate energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, the carbon footprint, of pastoral and barn dairy systems located in Canterbury, New Zealand. The carbon footprints were estimated based on direct and indirect energy sources. The study results showed that, on average, the carbon footprints of pastoral and barn dairy systems were 2857 kgCO2 ha−1 and 3379 kgCO2 ha−1, respectively. For the production of one tonne of milk solids, the carbon footprint was 1920 kgCO2 tMS−1 and 2129 kgCO2 tMS−1, respectively. The carbon emission difference between the two systems indicates that the barn system has 18% and 11% higher carbon footprint than the pastoral system, both per hectare of farm area and per tonne of milk solids, respectively. The greater carbon footprint of the barn system was due to more use of imported feed supplements, machinery usage and fossil fuel (diesel and petrol) consumption for on-farm activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy consumption; carbon footprints; pastoral dairy farming system (PDFs); barn dairy farming system (BDFs); Canterbury; New Zealand energy consumption; carbon footprints; pastoral dairy farming system (PDFs); barn dairy farming system (BDFs); Canterbury; New Zealand
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ilyas, H.M.A.; Safa, M.; Bailey, A.; Rauf, S.; Pangborn, M. The Carbon Footprint of Energy Consumption in Pastoral and Barn Dairy Farming Systems: A Case Study from Canterbury, New Zealand. Sustainability 2019, 11, 4809. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11174809

AMA Style

Ilyas HMA, Safa M, Bailey A, Rauf S, Pangborn M. The Carbon Footprint of Energy Consumption in Pastoral and Barn Dairy Farming Systems: A Case Study from Canterbury, New Zealand. Sustainability. 2019; 11(17):4809. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11174809

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ilyas, Hafiz Muhammad Abrar, Majeed Safa, Alison Bailey, Sara Rauf, and Marvin Pangborn. 2019. "The Carbon Footprint of Energy Consumption in Pastoral and Barn Dairy Farming Systems: A Case Study from Canterbury, New Zealand" Sustainability 11, no. 17: 4809. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11174809

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