Intellectual Capital, Profitability, and Productivity: Evidence from Pakistani Financial Institutions
AbstractThe idiosyncratic and knowledge-intense nature of the financial institutions requires them to rely more on intangible than on tangible resources. Over the past two decades, researchers have been motivated to embark on the relationship between intellectual capital (IC) and performance of financial institutions. Considering the knowledge-based intellect as a critical skill of this era, the current study examines the impact of IC on the performance of 111 Pakistani financial institutions (PFIs) over the period 2007–2018. Two IC measures, i.e., value-added intellectual coefficient (VAIC) and modified value-added intellectual coefficient (MVAIC), were applied to examine the impact of IC on profitability and productivity. Robust results from the fixed effect regression and generalized method of momentum affirm the inverted U-shaped relationship between IC and performance, suggesting that the increase in IC performance of PFIs increases their profitability and productivity up to a certain level, and after that, a further increase in IC performance decreases profitability and productivity. The results further suggest that human capital is the most influencing intellectual resource which produces higher intellectual efficiencies and increases the performance significantly. The results of this study are likely to be helpful for management, regulators, policy makers, and academics and provide insights into the importance of IC and suggest that the investment in the IC improves the sustainable performance to a certain extent. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Yao, H.; Haris, M.; Tariq, G.; Javaid, H.M.; Khan, M.A.S. Intellectual Capital, Profitability, and Productivity: Evidence from Pakistani Financial Institutions. Sustainability 2019, 11, 3842.
Yao H, Haris M, Tariq G, Javaid HM, Khan MAS. Intellectual Capital, Profitability, and Productivity: Evidence from Pakistani Financial Institutions. Sustainability. 2019; 11(14):3842.Chicago/Turabian Style
Yao, Hongxing; Haris, Muhammad; Tariq, Gulzara; Javaid, Hafiz M.; Khan, Muhammad A.S. 2019. "Intellectual Capital, Profitability, and Productivity: Evidence from Pakistani Financial Institutions." Sustainability 11, no. 14: 3842.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.