Next Article in Journal
Differential Pricing Strategies of High Speed Railway Based on Prospect Theory: An Empirical Study from China
Previous Article in Journal
Wind Power on the Brazilian Northeast Coast, from the Whiff of Hope to Turbulent Convergence: The Case of the Galinhos Wind Farms
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Review on the Archaeological Chemistry of Shellfish Purple
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Investigation of the Optical, Physical, and Chemical Interactions between Diammonium Hydrogen Phosphate (DAP) and Pigments

1
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California at Los Angeles, 410 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1595, USA
2
Molecular and Nano Archaeology Laboratory, Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science, Engineering V-1230B, 410 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1595, USA
3
Sorbonne Université, Faculté des Sciences et Ingénierie, UFR 926, F-75005 Paris, France
4
UCLA/Getty Conservation Program, A210 Fowler Building, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1510, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Scientific Research Department, National Gallery of Art, 2000B South Club Drive, Landover, MD 20785, USA.
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3803; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143803
Received: 19 May 2019 / Revised: 6 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Sciences in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage)
  |  
PDF [4417 KB, uploaded 15 July 2019]
  |  

Abstract

This research investigates and evaluates the optical, physical, and chemical interactions between diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAP) and seven pigments commonly encountered in archaeological and historic fresco and secco wall paintings and polychrome monuments. The pigments include cinnabar, French ochre, chalk, lapis lazuli, raw sienna, burnt umber, and red lead. The raw pigments were analyzed before and after the interaction with DAP, and the reaction products resulting from the contact of the pigments with the DAP solution were evaluated to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the effects of diammonium hydrogen phosphate on the color, morphology, and chemical composition of the pigments. The results indicated no significant change of the color or of the chemistry of cinnabar, French ochre, and lapis lazuli. Carbonate-containing pigments, such as chalk and calcium carbonate, were transformed into calcium phosphate, though without a significant change in color. Phase and strong color changes occurred only for the red lead pigment, associated with the transformation of red lead into hydroxypyromorphite. These data established the parameters and identified the risks of the direct application of DAP solutions on pigments. Further research will be undertaken to assess the potential use of DAP as a consolidant of wall paintings and other polychrome surfaces through testing on wall painting/polychromy mockups and on-site archaeological/historic painted surfaces. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydroxyapatite; diammonium hydrogen phosphate; pigment alteration; wall painting consolidation; cultural heritage hydroxyapatite; diammonium hydrogen phosphate; pigment alteration; wall painting consolidation; cultural heritage
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ma, X.; Pasco, H.; Balonis, M.; Kakoulli, I. Investigation of the Optical, Physical, and Chemical Interactions between Diammonium Hydrogen Phosphate (DAP) and Pigments. Sustainability 2019, 11, 3803.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top