Next Article in Journal
Configuring New Business Models for Circular Economy through Product–Service Systems
Previous Article in Journal
Factors Influencing Revenue Collection for Preventative Maintenance of Community Water Systems: A Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis
Open AccessArticle

Air Quality Standards and Extreme Ozone Events in the São Paulo Megacity

1
Institute of Advanced Studies, University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508-050, Brazil
2
Department of Geography; University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508-000, Brazil
3
Department of Environmental Management; University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo 03828-000, Brazil
4
Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102, China
5
Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo 03178-200, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(13), 3725; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11133725
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 22 June 2019 / Accepted: 1 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
  |  
PDF [1680 KB, uploaded 8 July 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

Ozone events in South America might be triggered by increasing air temperatures and dry conditions, leading to vulnerable population exposure. The current air quality standards and attention levels in São Paulo state, Brazil, are 40% higher and 25% higher, respectively, than the limits recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). We simulated an extreme ozone event in the São Paulo megacity using the Weather Research and Forecast/Chemistry model during an extreme event characterized by positive anomalies of air temperature and solar radiation. Results were evaluated using the different air quality limits from São Paulo state and the WHO, also with socioeconomic vulnerability data from the Brazilian census and cost analysis for the public health system from the extreme episode. More than 3 million people in vulnerability conditions, such as low income and families with an above-average percentage of children, live in areas where ozone concentrations exceeded the attention levels of the WHO during the episode, which is ignored by the lenient SP state environmental laws. WHO air quality guidelines must be adopted urgently in developing nations in order to provide a more accurate basis for cost analysis and population exposure, particularly the for vulnerable population groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; air quality modeling; ozone; urban environment; São Paulo; air pollution exposure; extreme events; vulnerability; environmental governance; cost analysis air pollution; air quality modeling; ozone; urban environment; São Paulo; air pollution exposure; extreme events; vulnerability; environmental governance; cost analysis
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chiquetto, J.B.; Silva, M.E.S.; Cabral-Miranda, W.; Ribeiro, F.N.D.; Ibarra-Espinosa, S.A.; Ynoue, R.Y. Air Quality Standards and Extreme Ozone Events in the São Paulo Megacity. Sustainability 2019, 11, 3725.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top