Next Article in Journal
Production of the Hydroxyl Radical and Removal of Formaldehyde by Calcined Green Tuff Powder and Tile
Next Article in Special Issue
Impact of Climate Change on the Optimization of Mixture Design of Low-CO2 Concrete Containing Fly Ash and Slag
Previous Article in Journal
Physical Properties of Straw Bales as a Construction Material: A Review
Open AccessArticle

Fire Spread of Thermal Insulation Materials in the Ceiling of Piloti-Type Structure: Comparison of Numerical Simulation and Experimental Fire Tests Using Small- and Real-Scale Models

1
Department of Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea
2
Hazard Mitigation Evaluation Technology Center, Korea Conformity Laboratories, Cheongju 28115, Korea
3
National Fire Science Research Center, Ministry of Public Safety and Security, Chungnam 31555, Korea
4
Department of Fire and Disaster Prevention Engineering, Kyungnam University, Changwon 51767, Korea
5
Department of Architecture, Sahmyook University, Seoul 01795, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(12), 3389; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123389
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 15 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Building Materials Research)
Large-scale fires mainly due to the ignition of thermal insulation materials in the ceiling of piloti-type structures are becoming frequent. However, the fire spread in these cases is not well understood. Herein we performed small-scale and real-scale model tests, and numerical simulations using a fire dynamics simulator (FDS). The experimental and FDS results were compared to elucidate fire spread and effects of thermal insulation materials on it. Comparison of real-scale fire test and FDS results revealed that extruded polystyrene (XPS) thermal insulation material generated additional ignition sources above the ceiling materials upon melting and propagated and sustained the fire. Deformation of these materials during fire test generated gaps, and combustible gases leaked out to cause fire spread. When the ceiling materials collapsed, air flew in through the gaps, leading to flashover that rapidly increased fire intensity and degree of spread. Although the variations of temperatures in real-scale fire test and FDS analysis were approximately similar, melting of XPS and generation of ignition sources could not be reproduced using FDS. Thus, artificial settings that increase the size and intensity of ignition sources at the appropriate moment in FDS were needed to achieve results comparable to those recorded by heat detectors in real-scale fire tests. View Full-Text
Keywords: fire spread; fire dynamic simulator; real-scale test; thermal insulation fire spread; fire dynamic simulator; real-scale test; thermal insulation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Suh, H.-W.; Im, S.-M.; Park, T.-H.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, H.-S.; Choi, H.-K.; Chung, J.-H.; Bae, S.-C. Fire Spread of Thermal Insulation Materials in the Ceiling of Piloti-Type Structure: Comparison of Numerical Simulation and Experimental Fire Tests Using Small- and Real-Scale Models. Sustainability 2019, 11, 3389.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop