The overall purpose of this study was to investigate psycho-physiological variations in human bodies by observing visual images of daytime and nighttime scenery to focus on restorative and recovery effects. Unlike previous studies that have focused on the natural versus built environments, this study aims to compare restorative and recovery potentials between daytime and nighttime. The experiment was conducted by showing a total of 12 images to 60 participants in order to measure the brain response with an electroencephalogram (EEG). As measures of the psychological impact of the images, perceived restorative and recovery scales were used. The self-reported data indicates that daytime sceneries are rated more positively than nighttime sceneries in terms of restorative and recovery effects. According to the EEG results, restorative and recovery feelings have negative relationships with the relative theta band, while positive relationships are shown with the relative alpha band. The correlation analysis between EEG bands and brain regions showed a significant correlation (p
< 0.05) with 46 pairs for the daytime scenery stimuli and 52 pairs for the nighttime scenery stimuli. Through the results of the study, we conclude that daytime and nighttime scenery affect restorative feelings and the human brain response through both verbal and non-verbal methods.
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