Next Article in Journal
Impact of Economic Growth and Energy Consumption on Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Testing Environmental Curves Hypotheses on EU Countries
Previous Article in Journal
Influence of Livelihood Capitals on Livelihood Strategies of Herdsmen in Inner Mongolia, China
Previous Article in Special Issue
In Vivo Cytotoxicity Induced by 60 Hz Electromagnetic Fields under a High-Voltage Substation Environment

Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3326; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093326

Editorial
Introduction to the Special Issue “Electromagnetic Waves Pollution”
Department of Mathematics and Informatics Sciences, Physics Sciences and Earth Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Viale D’Alcontres 31, I-98166 Messina, Italy
Received: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 16 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018

Abstract

:
Modern technology has largely developed using energy forms of which the most relevant is surely electricity. Electric power stations generate alternate current at frequencies of 50 or 60 Hz, transmitted across high voltage transmission lines that are often located too near to buildings where humans live or work. In addition, home devices that work using alternate current expose humans to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, trams, electric trains, and some industrial processes generate static magnetic fields. Electromagnetic fields produce non-ionizing radiation, which gives rise to the so-called electromagnetic waves pollution, also named electrosmog. A large scientific production study showed harmful effects of exposure to EMFs. In view of these results, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection published international guidelines in order to recommend exposure limits to EMFs for occupational exposure and for general public exposure. The aim of this thematic issue is to give a further contribution to highlight the problem of electromagnetic waves pollution and to investigate the effects of exposure to EMFs on biological systems even below the EMF limits recommended by ICNIRP.
Keywords:
electromagnetic waves pollution; electric power lines; static magnetic fields; extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields; health effects; cellular functions effects

1. A Brief Background of the Special Issue

People are commonly exposed to various types of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) that are static magnetic fields (SMFs), 50 ÷ 60 Hz EMFs commonly named extremely low frequencies (ELF) EMFs and high frequencies (HF) EMFs. EMFs are generated everywhere in our living environment by modern electrical systems such as power lines, electrical generators and motors, electrical wiring, home electronic devices, and wireless communication systems. In particular, in close proximity to certain home appliances, the magnetic-field intensities can be as much as few hundred microteslas, whereas in some workplaces they can reach 10 mT.
For instance, low-intensity SMFs ranging from 0.1 to 10 mT can be measured in proximity to the magnetic poles of conventional rail system DC traction motors, audio speaker components, battery-operated motors, refrigerator magnets, and headphones [1,2,3].
Various experimental observations demonstrated that exposure to SMFs induces unhealthy effects on biological systems and alterations in cellular functions [4,5,6,7,8]. Even significant changes in simple organic systems under exposure to SMFs were observed [9,10,11,12,13].
Regarding the effects of exposure to 50/60 Hz EMFs, some epidemiological studies reported a possible correlation between an increase of risk of cancer and exposure to ELF-EMF [14,15]. Indeed, although 50/60 Hz EMFs seem to not directly lead to genotoxic effects, some studies evidenced that certain cellular processes can be altered by exposure to ELF-EMFs such as changing the structure of DNA, causing strand breaks and other chromosomal aberrations [16]. Genotoxic damage in various cell models due to exposure to ELF-EMFs was also demonstrated [17,18,19]. Three studies of the World Health Organization (WHO) also evidenced possible health effects from exposure to static and ELF-EMFs [20,21,22]. Further alterations in cellular functions due to exposure to ELF-EMFs have been observed [23,24,25,26]. Interestingly, protein aggregation induced by exposure to ELF-EMFs was also demonstrated [27,28,29,30,31], leading the researchers to hypothesize a correlation between exposure to EMFs and certain pathologies in humans. Indeed, protein aggregation in fibrillar form can be associated with some types of neurodegenerative disorders that are the first step toward certain pathologies [32,33,34,35].
Finally, in recent years, the achievement of wireless technology has induced the growing use of high-frequency electromagnetic fields (HF-EMFs), represented by radiofrequencies (RFs) and microwaves (MWs) emitted by radio stations and wireless home devices, the most used of which is surely mobile phone. Indeed, it is possible that these devices can work near to natural biological frequencies, interfering with sophisticated electric circuits that are present in the human body, for example in the brain [36,37,38,39]. In addition, some in vitro experiments showed that RF-MWs can be carcinogens and can induce DNA damage [40,41,42,43,44,45,46]. Alterations in the secondary protein’s structure were also observed, represented by protein aggregation and alignment towards an applied HF-EMF [47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55], giving evident proof that exposure to HF-EMFs causes significant non-thermal effects even in simple organic systems.
Despite the fact that the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) published international guidelines in order to recommend exposure limits to EMFs for occupational exposure and for general public exposure [56,57,58,59], significant alterations have been observed even below EMF limits recommended by the ICNIRP, such as shown in the (non-exhaustive) reference list cited above. In this regard, a new approach in order to preserve living beings from electromagnetic waves pollution has been recently proposed [60].

2. The Aim of This Special Issue

The reference list cited above regarding the effects of exposure to EMFs is surely not exhaustive. Despite the fact that some results in previous literature reported no significant alterations in living functions after exposure to EMFs, electromagnetic waves pollution is a problem that cannot be neglected.
In view of these facts, the aim of this thematic issue is to give a further contribution to highlight the effects of exposure to EMFs on biological systems at low frequencies generated by modern electromagnetic systems in use at present, even below the EMF limits recommended by the ICNIRP.
In this regard, the published papers of this special issue give further demonstration of significant harmful effects on biological systems induced by exposure to ELF-EMFs. In particular, it was shown that in vivo cytoxicity is induced by 60 Hz EMFs under a high-voltage substation environment [61], which is an environment to which humans can commonly be exposed. In Ref. [62], measurements of ELF-EMFs intensity were carried out in the rooms of apartments near high- and medium-voltage wiring and transformer stations, which can be generally located inside residential buildings. Magnetic field levels greater than 0.3 μT were found, which are comparable to simulation values at which significant effects were observed in previous literature [23,24,25,26,27,28]. Finally, modulation of Ca2+/H+ and Na/H+ plasma membrane antiporters of human peripheral blood lymphocytes were found in [63] after exposure to a SMF at 6 mT, which is a magnetic field level comparable to SMFs generally measured in proximity to the magnetic poles of conventional rail system DC traction motors, audio speaker components, battery-operated motors, refrigerator magnets, and headphones [1,2,3].
In conclusion, the studies reported in this thematic issue give further proof of significant effects in cellular functions induced by exposure to intensity levels of ELF-EMFs to which humans are generally exposed. Since it cannot be ruled out that such measured alterations can induce the onset of diseases in humans, it would be advisable to design shielding protection against exposure to EMFs or to plan electromagnetic systems and devices working at frequencies far from natural resonant frequencies of biological systems. These frequencies would be discovered in future research.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest

References

  1. Chadwick, P.; Lowes, F. Magnetic fields on British trains. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 1998, 42, 331–335. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  2. Muc, A.M. Electromagnetic Fields Associated with Transportation Systems; Health Canada: Toronto, ON, Canada, 2001. [Google Scholar]
  3. World Health Organization (WHO). Framework for Developing Health-Based EMF Standards; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2006. [Google Scholar]
  4. Jajte, J.; Grzegorczyk, J.; Zmyślony, M.; Rajkowska, E. Effect of 7mT static magnetic field, iron ions on rat lymphocytes: Apoptosis, necrosis and free radical processes. Bioelectrochemistry 2002, 57, 107–111. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  5. Kinouchi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Tenforde, T.S. Theoretical analysis of magnetic field interactions with aortic blood flow. Bioelectromagnetics 1996, 17, 21–32. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Pacini, S.; Gulisano, M.; Peruzzi, B.; Sgambati, E.; Gheri, G.; Gheri Bryk, S.; Vannucchi, S.; Polli, G.; Ruggiero, M. Effects of 0.2 T static magnetic field on human skin fibroblasts. Cancer Detect. Prev. 2003, 27, 327–332. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  7. Zhang, Q.M.; Tokiwa, M.; Doi, T.; Nakahara, T.; Chang, P.-W.; Nakamura, N.; Hori, M.; Miyakoshi, J.; Yonei, S. Strong static magnetic field and the induction of mutations through elevated production of reactive oxygen species in Escherichia coli soxR. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2003, 79, 281–286. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Calabrò, E.; Condello, S.; Currò, M.; Ferlazzo, N.; Caccamo, D.; Magazù, S.; Ientile, R. Effects of Low Intensity Static Magnetic Field on FTIR spectra and ROS production in SH-SY5Y neuronal-like cells. Bioelectromagnetics 2013, 34, 618–629. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Magazù, S.; Calabrò, E.; Campo, S.; Interdonato, S. New Insights into Bioprotective Effectiveness of Disaccharides: A FTIR Study of Human Haemoglobin Aqueous Solutions exposed to Static Magnetic Fields. J. Biol. Phys. 2012, 38, 61–74. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Calabrò, E.; Magazù, S. Demicellization of Polyethylene Oxide in Water Solution under Static Magnetic Field Exposure Studied by FTIR Spectroscopy. Adv. Phys. Chem. 2013, 2013, 485865. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Calabrò, E.; Magazù, S. FTIR Spectroscopy Analysis of Molecular Vibrations in Gasoline Fuel under 200 mT Static Magnetic Field Highlighted Structural Changes of Hydrocarbons Chains. Pet. Sci. Technol. 2015, 33, 1676–1684. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  12. Calabrò, E.; Magazù, S. Induced-Orientation of Nitrogen Monoxide and Azide Ion Vibrations in Human Hemoglobin in Bidistilled Water Solution under a Static Magnetic Field. Bioelectromagnetics 2017, 38, 447–455. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Calabrò, E.; Magazù, S. Direct spectroscopic evidence for competition between thermal molecular agitation and magnetic field in a tetrameric protein in aqueous solution. Phys. Lett. A 2018, 382, 1389–1394. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  14. Milham, S.; Ossiander, E.M. Historical evidence that residential electrification caused the emergence of the childhood leukemia peak. Med. Hypotheses 2001, 56, 290–295. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Non-ionizing radiation, Part 1: Static and extremely low-frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks Hum. 2002, 80, 390. [Google Scholar]
  16. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Non-ionizing radiation, Part 2: Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks to Hum. 2013, 102, 1–460. [Google Scholar]
  17. Nordenson, I.; Hansson, K.M.; Sandstrom, M.; Mattsson, M.O. Effect of Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields on the Chromosomal Level in Human Amniotic Cells. In Interaction Mechanisms of Low-Level Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems—Resonant Phenomena; Ramel, N.C., Ed.; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 1992; pp. 240–250. [Google Scholar]
  18. Simko, M.; Kriehuber, R.; Lange, S. Micronucleus formation in human amnion cells after exposure to 50Hz MF applied horizontally and vertically. Mutat. Res. 1998, 418, 101–111. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Ding, G.R.; Wake, K.; Taki, M.; Miyakoshi, J. Increase in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase gene mutations by exposure to electric field. Life Sci. 2001, 68, 1041–1046. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. World Health Organization (WHO). Extremely low frequency (ELF) fields. In Environmental Health Criteria; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1984; Volume 35. [Google Scholar]
  21. World Health Organization (WHO). Magnetic fields. In Environmental Health Criteria; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1987; Volume 69. [Google Scholar]
  22. World Health Organization (WHO). Electromagnetic fields (300 Hz to 300 GHz). In Environmental Health Criteria; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1993; Volume 137. [Google Scholar]
  23. Verheyen, G.R.; Pauwels, G.; Verschaeve, L.; Schoeters, G. Effect of coexposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields and an aneugen on human lymphocytes, determined by the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. Bioelectromagnetics 2003, 24, 160–164. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Goodman, R.; Blank, M.; Lin, H.; Dai, R.; Khorkova, O.; Soo, L.; Weisbrot, D.; Henderson, A. Increased levels of hsp70 transcripts induced when cells are exposed to low frequency electromagnetic fields. Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 1994, 33, 115–120. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  25. Pipkin, J.L.; Hinson, W.G.; Young, J.F.; Rowland, K.L.; Shaddock, J.G.; Tolleson, W.H.; Duffy, P.H.; Casciano, D.A. Induction of stress proteins by electromagnetic fields in cultured HL-60 cells. Bioelectromagnetics 1999, 20, 347–357. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  26. Marino, A.A.; Kolomytkin, O.V.; Frilot, C. Extracellular currents alter gap junction intercellular communication in synovial fibroblasts. Bioelectromagnetics 2003, 24, 199–205. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Magazù, S.; Calabrò, E.; Campo, S. FTIR Spectroscopy Studies on the Bioprotective Effectiveness of Trehalose on Human Hemoglobin Aqueous Solutions under 50 Hz Electromagnetic Field Exposure. J. Phys. Chem. B 2010, 114, 12144–12149. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. Calabrò, E.; Magazù, S. Electromagnetic Fields Effects on the Secondary Structure of Lysozyme and Bioprotective Effectiveness of Trehalose. Adv. Phys. Chem. 2012, 2012, 970369. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Calabrò, E.; Condello, S.; Currò, M.; Ferlazzo, N.; Vecchio, M.; Caccamo, D.; Magazù, S.; Ientile, R. 50 Hz Electromagnetic Field Produced Changes in FTIR Spectroscopy Associated with Mitochondrial Transmembrane Potential Reduction in Neuronal-Like SH-SY5Y Cells. Oxidative Med. Cell. Longev. 2013, 2013, 414393. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. Calabrò, E. Competition between Hydrogen Bonding and Protein Aggregation in Neuronal-Like Cells under Exposure to 50 Hz Magnetic Field. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2016, 92, 395–403. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. Calabrò, E.; Magazù, S. Response of Hydrogen Bonding to Low Intensity 50 Hz Electromagnetic Field in Typical Proteins in Bidistilled Water Solution. Spectrosc. Lett. An Int. J. Rapid Commun. 2017, 50, 330–335. [Google Scholar]
  32. Uversky, V.N. Protein folding revisited. A polypeptide chain at the folding-misfolding-nonfolding cross-roads: Which way to go? Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 2003, 60, 1852–1871. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. Dobson, C.M. The structural basis of protein folding and its links with human disease. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B Biol. Sci. 2001, 356, 133–145. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  34. Brzyska, M.; Bacia, A.; Elbaum, D. Oxidative and hydrolytic properties of beta-amyloid. Eur. J. Biochem. 2001, 268, 3443–3454. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. Squier, T.C. Oxidative stress and protein aggregation during biological aging. Exp. Gerontol. 2001, 36, 1539–1550. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  36. Beasond, R.C.; Semm, P. Responses of Neurons to an Amplitude Modulated Microwave Stimulus. Neurosci. Lett. 2002, 333, 175–178. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  37. Lai, H.; Horita, A.; Chou, C.K.; Guy, A.W. Low-Level Microwave Irradiations Affect Central Cholinergic Activity in the Rat. J. Neurochem. 1987, 48, 40–45. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. Fritze, K.; Sommer, C.; Schmitz, B.; Mies, G.; Hossmann, K.-A.; Kiessling, M.; Wiessner, C. Effect of Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) Microwave Exposure on Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability in Rat. Acta Neuropathol. 1997, 94, 465–470. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. Tore, F.; Dulou, P.E.; Haro, E.; Aubineau, P. Two-Hour Exposure to 2 W/kg, 900 MHz GSM Microwaves Induces Plasma Protein Extravasation in Rat Brain. In Proceedings of the 5th International Congress of the European Bioelectromagnetics Association 2001, Helsinki, Finland, 6–8 September 2001; pp. 43–45. [Google Scholar]
  40. Balcer-Kubiczek, E.K.; Harrison, G.H. Neoplastic Transformation of C3H/10T1/2 Cells Following Exposure to 120 Hz Modulated 2.45 GHz Microwaves and Phorbol Ester Tumour Promoter. Radiat. Res. 1991, 126, 65–72. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. Repacholi, M.H.; Basten, A.; Gebski, V.; Noonan, D.; Finnie, J.; Harris, A.W. Lymphomas in E mu-Piml Transgenic Mice Exposed to Pulsed 900 MHz Electromagnetic Fields. Radiat. Res. 1997, 147, 631–640. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. Maes, A.; Collier, M.; Van Gorp, U.; Vandoninck, S.; Verschaeve, L. Cytogenetic Effects of 935.2 MHz (GSM) Microwaves Alone and in Combination with Mitomycin C. Mutat. Res. 1997, 393, 151–156. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  43. Garaj-Vrhovac, V.; Horvat, D.; Koren, Z. The Effect of Microwave Radiation on the Cell Genome. Mutat. Res. 1990, 243, 87–93. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  44. Belyaev, I.Y.; Koch, C.B.; Terenius, O.; Roxström-Lindquist, K.; Malmgren, L.O.G.; Sommer, H.W.; Salford, L.G.; Persson, B.R.R. Exposure of Rat Brain to 915 MHz GSM Microwaves Induces Changes in Gene Expression but not Double Stranded DNA Breaks or Effects on Chromatin Conformation. Bioelectromagnetics 2006, 27, 295–306. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. Diem, E.; Schwarz, C.; Adlkofer, F.; Jahn, O.; Rüdiger, H. Non-thermal DNA Breakage by Mobile-Phone Radiation (1800 MHz) in Human Fibroblasts and in Transformed GFSH-R17 Rat Granulosa Cells in Vitro. Mutat. Res. 2005, 583, 178–183. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. Tice, R.R.; Hook, G.G.; Donner, M.; McRee, D.I.; Guy, A.W. Genotoxicity of Radiofrequency Signals. I. Investigation of DNA Damage and Micronuclei Induction in Cultured Human Blood Cells. Bioelectromagnetics 2002, 23, 113–126. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. Calabrò, E.; Magazù, S.; Campo, S. Microwave-induced increase of amide I and amide II vibration bands and modulating functions of sodium-chloride, sucrose and trehalose aqueous solutions: The case study of Haemoglobin. Res. J. Chem. Environ. 2012, 16, 59–67. [Google Scholar]
  48. Calabrò, E.; Magazù, S. Unfolding and Aggregation of Myoglobin can be induced by Three Hours Exposure to Mobile Phone Microwaves: A FTIR spectroscopy study. Spectrosc. Lett. An Int. J. Rapid Commun. 2013, 46, 583–589. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  49. Calabrò, E.; Magazù, S. Non-Thermal Effects of Microwave Oven Heating on Ground Beef Meat Studied in the Mid-Infrared Region by FTIR Spectroscopy. Spectrosc. Lett. An Int. J. Rapid Commun. 2014, 47, 649–656. [Google Scholar]
  50. Calabrò, E.; Magazù, S. Unfolding-Induced in Haemoglobin by Exposure to Electromagnetic fields: A FTIR Spectroscopy Study. Orient. J. Chem. 2014, 30, 31–35. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  51. Calabrò, E.; Magazù, S. Fourier–Self–Deconvolution Analysis of β-sheet Contents in the Amide I Region of Haemoglobin Aqueous Solutions under Exposure to 900 MHz Microwaves and bioprotective effectiveness of sugars and salt solutions. Spectrosc. Lett. Int. J. Rapid Commun. 2015, 48, 741–747. [Google Scholar]
  52. Calabrò, E.; Magazù, S. Interactions of Bovine Muscle Tissue with 2450 MHz Microwaves Studied in the Mid-Infrared Region. Int. J. Food Prop. 2016, 19, 1353–1361. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  53. Calabrò, E.; Magazù, S. Parallel β-sheet Vibration Band Increases with Proteins Dipole Moment under Exposure to 1765 MHz Microwaves. Bioelectromagnetics 2016, 37, 99–107. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  54. Calabrò, E.; Magazù, S. The α-Helix Alignment of Proteins in Water Solution towards a High Frequency Electromagnetic Field: A FTIR Spectroscopy Study. Electromagn. Biol. Med. 2017, 36, 279–288. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  55. Calabrò, E.; Magazù, S. Effects of the addition of sodium chloride to a tetrameric protein in water solution during exposure to high frequency electromagnetic field. Open Biotechnol. J. 2017, 11, 72–80. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  56. International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). ICNIRP Guidelines for limiting exposure to time varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz). Health Phys. 1998, 74, 494–522. [Google Scholar]
  57. International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). ICNIRP Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Static Magnetic Fields. Health Phys. 2009, 96, 504–514. [Google Scholar]
  58. International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. ICNIRP Statement on the guidelines for limiting exposure to time varying electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz). Health Phys. 2009, 97, 257–258. [Google Scholar]
  59. International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). ICNIRP Guidelines for limiting exposure to electric fields induced by movement of the human body in a static magnetic field and by time-varying magnetic fields below 1 Hz. Health Phys. 2014, 106, 418–425. [Google Scholar]
  60. Calabrò, E.; Magazù, S. Non-Resonant Frequencies of Electromagnetic Fields in α-Helices Cellular Membrane Channels. Open Biotechnol. J. 2018, 12, 86–94. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  61. Heredia-Rojas, J.A.; Rodríguez-De la Fuente, A.O.; Gomez-Flores, R.; Heredia-Rodríguez, O.; Rodríguez-Flores, L.E.; Beltcheva, M.; Castañeda-Garza, M.E. In Vivo Cytotoxicity Induced by 60 Hz Electromagnetic Fields under a High-Voltage Substation Environment. Sustainability 2018, 10, 2789. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  62. Navarro-Camba, E.A.; Segura-García, J.; Gomez-Perretta, C. Exposure to 50 Hz Magnetic Fields in Homes and Areas Surrounding Urban Transformer Stations in Silla (Spain): Environmental Impact Assessment. Sustainability 2018, 10, 2641. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  63. Vergallo, C.; Dini, L. Comparative Analysis of Biological Effects Induced on Different Cell Types by Magnetic Fields with Magnetic Flux Densities in the Range of 1–60 mT and Frequencies up to 50 Hz. Sustainability 2018, 10, 2776. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

© 2018 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Back to TopTop