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Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2419;

Social Exclusion and Switching Barriers in Medicare Part D Choices

School of Business, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Seoul 02450, Korea
Department of Marketing, Pennsylvania State University, Greater Allegheny, McKeesport, PA 15132, USA
School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Florham Park, NJ 07932, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 June 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Previous studies have shown that Medicare beneficiaries do not tend to switch their prescription drug plans (Part D), even though they can greatly save on the money spent on drugs by switching plans. To explore this occurrence, the present study focused on the concept of social exclusion—one of the most important characteristics prevalent in the elderly. This study compared the impact of two types of social exclusion on the association between psychological cost and plan switching: active (or rejected) social exclusion and passive (or ignored) social exclusion. The study’s aim was to examine the moderating effect of social exclusion on the relationship between the cost of switching and willingness to switch plan to build sustainable health care system. The Prescription Drug Study supplementary to the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data were utilized for analysis by applying a Hierarchical Linear Model (HLM) (N = 1042). The findings suggest that active social exclusion moderates the relationship between the switching cost and willingness to switch plan. This study’s findings will help policymakers better understand the elderly’s decision-making process pertaining to plans and promote their informed plan decisions to build sustainable health care system. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainable health care system; ignored; rejected sustainable health care system; ignored; rejected
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ko, D.W.; Bae, Y.H.; Han, J. Social Exclusion and Switching Barriers in Medicare Part D Choices. Sustainability 2018, 10, 2419.

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