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Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1835;

Comparing Characteristics of Environmental Behaviors and Spatial Types in Open and Gated Housing Blocks: A Case Study of Changchun, China

Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, North 13, West 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628, Japan
Division of Architectural and Structural Design, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Sustainable Built Environment)
PDF [5432 KB, uploaded 1 June 2018]


Physical characteristics of residential areas affect many aspects of living sustainability, including the environmental behavior of residents. Based on the policy issued in China in 2016, the guideline of transforming existing gated housing blocks into open mode is being gradually implemented in some cities. However, the transforming of boundary walls and internal roads has changed the living environment such as the open space that residents have been accustomed to and has affected environmental behaviors correspondingly. From perspectives of spatial types and environmental behaviors, this research compared an open housing block (which is reconstructed from gated one) with a comparable original gated housing block. The Behavior Mapping Method was used to capture environmental behaviors in two housing blocks; factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to extract spatial characteristics and classify spatial types; and finally differences between the open housing block and the gated housing block were shown by comparing the distribution of environmental behaviors in each space type. The results indicate that the presence or absence of the enclosing walls affects the division of space types and environmental behaviors in housing blocks. For gated housing blocks, spaces with strong privacy attract various types of activities, which are overwhelming in categories and the number of people, while in the open housing blocks, this situation is not as obvious as in the former. View Full-Text
Keywords: housing blocks; reconstruction; environmental behaviors; spatial types; China housing blocks; reconstruction; environmental behaviors; spatial types; China

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Huang, J.; Mori, S.; Nomura, R. Comparing Characteristics of Environmental Behaviors and Spatial Types in Open and Gated Housing Blocks: A Case Study of Changchun, China. Sustainability 2018, 10, 1835.

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