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Energy and Exergy Analyses of Different Aluminum Reduction Technologies

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Department of Industrial Engineering, The Hashemite University, Az-Zarqa 13133, Jordan
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Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
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Energy Engineering Department, German Jordanian University, Amman 11180, Jordan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1216; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041216
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
This paper examines and compares different aluminum reduction technologies found in the literature as alternatives to the current Hall–Heroult technology. The main inefficiencies in the current Hall–Heroult technology were identified and the advantages of the different proposed technologies over the Hall–Heroult technology were determined. The comparison between the different technologies, namely Hall–Heroult, wetted drained cathode, inert anode, and carbothermic, was based on energy and material requirements, and environmental impact. In order to combine all of the evaluation criteria into one numerical value, the exergy concept was utilized as a decision tool. The results emphasize that in order to analyze any conversion system, the exergy of energy, material, environmental impact, and their associated chain production should be taken into consideration. View Full-Text
Keywords: exergy; aluminum; Hall–Heroult; inert anode; wetted drained cathode; carbothermic exergy; aluminum; Hall–Heroult; inert anode; wetted drained cathode; carbothermic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Obaidat, M.; Al-Ghandoor, A.; Phelan, P.; Villalobos, R.; Alkhalidi, A. Energy and Exergy Analyses of Different Aluminum Reduction Technologies. Sustainability 2018, 10, 1216. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041216

AMA Style

Obaidat M, Al-Ghandoor A, Phelan P, Villalobos R, Alkhalidi A. Energy and Exergy Analyses of Different Aluminum Reduction Technologies. Sustainability. 2018; 10(4):1216. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041216

Chicago/Turabian Style

Obaidat, Mazin, Ahmed Al-Ghandoor, Patrick Phelan, Rene Villalobos, and Ammar Alkhalidi. 2018. "Energy and Exergy Analyses of Different Aluminum Reduction Technologies" Sustainability 10, no. 4: 1216. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041216

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