Next Article in Journal
Contrasting Urban Landscapes and Reduced Irrigation Engender Water Conservation in a Desert Environment
Next Article in Special Issue
Sustainable Urban Development: Spatial Analyses as Novel Tools for Planning a Universally Designed City
Previous Article in Journal
Harvesting Water for Living with Drought: Insights from the Brazilian Human Coexistence with Semi-Aridity Approach towards Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals
Previous Article in Special Issue
Land Use and Cover Change during the Rapid Economic Growth Period from 1990 to 2010: A Case Study of Shanghai
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 623;

Towards a Smart City: Development and Application of an Improved Integrated Environmental Monitoring System

Department of Land Surveying and Geo-informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [4006 KB, uploaded 28 February 2018]   |  


Environmental deprivation is an issue influencing the urban wellbeing of a city. However, there are limitations to spatiotemporally monitoring the environmental deprivation. Thus, recent studies have introduced the concept of “Smart City” with the use of advanced technology for real-time environmental monitoring. In this regard, this study presents an improved Integrated Environmental Monitoring System (IIEMS) with the consideration on nine environmental parameters: temperature, relative humidity, PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), UV index, and noise. This system was comprised of a mobile unit and a server-based platform with nine highly accurate micro-sensors in-coupling into the mobile unit for estimating these environmental exposures. A calibration test using existing monitoring station data was conducted in order to evaluate the systematic errors. Two applications with the use of the new system were also conducted under different scenarios: pre- and post-typhoon days and in areas with higher and lower vegetation coverage. Linear regressions were applied to predict the changes in environmental quality after a typhoon and to estimate the difference in environmental exposures between urban roads and green spaces. The results show that environmental exposures interact with each other, while some exposures are also controlled by location. PM2.5 had the highest change after a typhoon with an estimated 8.0 μg/m³ decrease that was controlled by other environmental factors and geographical location. Sound level and temperature were significantly higher on urban roads than in urban parks. This study demonstrates the potential to use IIEMS for environmental quality measurements under the greater framework of a Smart City and for sustainability research. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental monitoring; Smart City; smart sensor; sustainable planning environmental monitoring; Smart City; smart sensor; sustainable planning

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wong, M.S.; Wang, T.; Ho, H.C.; Kwok, C.Y.T.; Lu, K.; Abbas, S. Towards a Smart City: Development and Application of an Improved Integrated Environmental Monitoring System. Sustainability 2018, 10, 623.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top