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Spatial Assessment of Degraded Lands for Biofuel Production in Indonesia

Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119077, Singapore
Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor 16115, Indonesia
Department of Plant Genetic and Breeding, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16151, Indonesia
Institute for the Advanced Studies for Sustainability, United Nations University, Tokyo 150-892, Japan
Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-0053, Japan
Center for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement Research and Development, Yogyakarta 55582, Indonesia
National Institute of Forest Science, Seoul 02455, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4595;
Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 2 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
PDF [2457 KB, uploaded 5 December 2018]


This study spatially estimated degraded lands in Indonesia that have limited functions for food production, carbon storage, and conservation of biodiversity and native vegetation and examined their suitability to grow biodiesel species (Calophyllum inophyllum, Pongamia pinnata, and Reutealis trisperma) and biomass species (Calliandra calothyrsus and Gliricidia sepium). Results showed ~3.5 million ha of degraded lands potentially suitable for these species in Indonesia. With the all-five-species scenario, these lands had the potential to produce 1105 PJ year−1 of biomass and 3 PJ year−1 of biodiesel. With the biodiesel-only-species scenario, these lands showed the potential to produce 10 PJ year−1 of biodiesel. Despite this energy potential, however, the land sizes were too small to support economies of scale for biofuel production. The study findings contribute to identifying lands with limited functions, modeling the growth of biofuel species on regional lands, and estimating carbon stocks of restored degraded lands in Indonesia. View Full-Text
Keywords: degraded land; biodiesel; biomass; energy; Indonesia degraded land; biodiesel; biomass; energy; Indonesia

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Jaung, W.; Wiraguna, E.; Okarda, B.; Artati, Y.; Goh, C.S.; Syahru, R.; Leksono, B.; Prasetyo, L.B.; Lee, S.M.; Baral, H. Spatial Assessment of Degraded Lands for Biofuel Production in Indonesia. Sustainability 2018, 10, 4595.

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