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Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4118; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114118

Cross-Laminated Secondary Timber: Experimental Testing and Modelling the Effect of Defects and Reduced Feedstock Properties

1
Department of Civil, Environmental & Geomatic Engineering, Centre for Urban Sustainability and Resilience, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
2
Scale Rule CIC, White Collar Factory, 1 Old Street Yard, London EC1Y 8AF, UK
3
Department of Civil, Environmental & Geomatic Engineering, Centre for Resource Efficiency & the Environment, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The New Paradigm of Waste Management: Waste as Resources)
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Abstract

The construction industry creates significant volumes of waste timber, much of which has residual quality and value that dissipates in conventional waste management. This research explored the novel concept of reusing secondary timber as feedstock for cross-laminated timber (CLT). If cross-laminated secondary timber (CLST) can replace conventional CLT, structural steel and reinforced concrete in some applications, this constitutes upcycling to displace materials of greater environmental impacts. The fabrication process and mechanical properties of CLST were tested in small-scale laboratory experiments, which showed no significant difference between the compression stiffness and strength of CLST and a control. Finite element modelling suggested that typical minor defects in secondary timber have only a small effect on CLST panel stiffness in compression and bending. Mechanically Jointed Beams Theory calculations to examine the potential impacts of secondary timber ageing on CLST panels found that this has little effect on compression stiffness if only the crosswise lamellae are replaced. Since use of secondary timber to make CLST has a more significant effect on bending stiffness, effective combinations of primary and secondary timber and their appropriate structural applications are proposed. The article concludes with open research questions to advance this concept towards commercial application. View Full-Text
Keywords: mass timber; lumber; waste wood; re-use and recycling; circular economy; off-site manufacture; building materials; construction and demolition waste; C&D; end-of-waste mass timber; lumber; waste wood; re-use and recycling; circular economy; off-site manufacture; building materials; construction and demolition waste; C&D; end-of-waste
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Rose, C.M.; Bergsagel, D.; Dufresne, T.; Unubreme, E.; Lyu, T.; Duffour, P.; Stegemann, J.A. Cross-Laminated Secondary Timber: Experimental Testing and Modelling the Effect of Defects and Reduced Feedstock Properties. Sustainability 2018, 10, 4118.

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